A -B - C - D - E - F - G - I - L - M - O - P - Q - R - S - T - V

A


Indawo yokuhlala ngezwi: ukuthambekela kokwenza ukukhuluma komuntu ngamazwi kufane kakhulu nezimpawu zezwi zomhambisi (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37).

I-aphasia engasho lutho: [aphasia] I-Aphasia ibonakala ngokukhiqizwa okungekuhle, imisho emifushane, ukucaciswa okunzima, i-prosody engasebenzi kahle; kungaba khona i-agrammatism. Izindlela zokuhlukanisa i-fluas kusuka ku-aphasia engeyona fluor yilezi: ukuba khona kwe-apraxia yomlomo, ubude bomusho, inani lokukhuluma, ukuba khona kwe-agrammatism noma i-slang ne-prosody. Ngokuvamile, ukuba khona kwe-apraxia yomlomo kanye nobude bomusho kubhekwe ngaphezulu kwakho konke: uma kungekho misho enamagama ayisithupha okungenani (umusho owodwa okungenani kokuyishumi) uvame ukuba yi-aphasia engenaphutha (IBasso, Ukwazi nokufundisa kabusha i-aphasia, 2009: 64).

I-Afemia: [aphasia] Isikhathi sokuqala salokho esizobizwa kamuva aphasia, eyenziwe nguPaul Broca ukuchaza labo abangakwazi ukukhuluma ngamazwi yize benokuqonda okuhle.


Affricazione: [Ulimi] Inqubo yesistimu: ukufakwa komsindo ophahlazekayo nowokuxhumana nomuntu. Isibonelo: "cagia" ye "Ikhaya" (cf. Indatshana yethu ngePhonetics neFonology)

Ukuhlaziya Okuhlukile (ANOVA): [izibalo, indlela yokucwaninga] inqubo yezibalo ekuvumela ukuthi uqhathanise amaqembu ahlukile enkambisweni eyodwa yokuqanjiwe kwe-null hypothesis, ngokuqhathanisa ukungafani phakathi kwamaqembu nokuhluka okungahleliwe (bheka futhi UBolzani noCanestrari, Logic ye-Statistical Test, 1995).

I-Anteriorizzazione: [Ulimi] Inqubo yesistimu: ukufaka esikhundleni umsindo ongasemuva ongaphandle. Isibonelo: "tasa" for "Ikhaya" (cf. Indatshana yethu ngePhonetics neFonology).

aposiopesis: [Izilimi] Ukuphazamiseka okungazelelwe kwesigwebo okungaqhubeki phambili. Njengesibalo esisetshenziswayo, kuhloswe ukuvumela umfundi noma isilaleli siqagele sonke isigwebo. Endabeni ye-aphasias, kepha, kuvame ukuba umphumela ongathandeki wokungakwazi ukuqhubeka ngenxa yobunzima bokuhlela umusho noma izinkinga ekuvuseleleni ithemu.

Ukufunda okungenaphutha: [I-neuropsychology, memory] inqubo yokubamba ngekhanda yaqala yathuthukiselwa iziguli ezinamandla kakhulu, ezibandakanya ukufundwa okuqondiswa nokwenzelwe lula ulwazi ukuvikela iphutha noku ngekhanda kwalo ezingeni elifakiwe (bona futhi Ukufunda Okungenaphutha Ekuvuseleleni Okuqondayo: Isibuyekezo Esibucayi, I-2012; I-Mazzucchi, ukuvuselelwa kwe-Neuropsychological, 2012).

Apraxia: [I-neuropsychology] ukuphazamiseka kokufinyeleleka kokunyakaza okufundile, zombili ukuthinta kokusebenzisa izinto nezinto zomzimba ongokomfanekiso. Akuwona umphumela wokushintshwa kohlelo lwezimoto, lokuntuleka kokuqonda, lokushoda kokunaka noma lokusilela ekubonakalweni kwezinto (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

I-apraxia efanelekayo: [i-neuropsychology] i-apraxia ephathelene nokusetshenziswa kwento (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

I-Ideomotor apraxia: [I-neuropsychology] i-apraxia ephathelene nokuguqulwa kwezimpawu zomzimba ezihlukile, zombili zingenanjongo (kokulingisa) nokomfanekiso (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001)

I-apraxia eyakhayo: [i-neuropsychology] uhlobo lwe-apraxia oluphathelene nokufinyeleleka kwesibalo sejometri (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

I-apraxia yezingubo: [i-neuropsychology] i-apraxia ephathelene nekhono lokugqoka (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

I-apraxia yamehlo: [i-neuropsychology] i-apraxia ebandakanya ushintsho lokunyakaza kwamehlo (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

Mashi Apraxia: [i-neuropsychology] uhlobo lwe-apraxia oluholela ekungakwazi ukuthatha izinyathelo (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

I-Optic ataxia: [i-neuropsychology] ukuntuleka kokuhlangana kokubonakalayo okubandakanya ukufinyelela amaphutha kanye nesilungu entweni ebonakalayo. Ngokuvamile kubangelwa ukulimala kobuchopho emendweni obonakalayo we-dorsal. Akuncike ekwehlulekeni kokubona into okufanele ifinyelelwe futhi iqondwe, noma kunjalo ukuxhumana nayo ezingeni lezimoto kunzima (bona futhi ILadàvas neBerti, iN Manual of Neuropsychology, 2014).

ukuthembeka (noma ukuthembeka): [psychometry] impahla yensimbi yokulinganisa (ukuhlola) ekhombisa izinga lokuqina kwezikolo lapho izilinganiso ziphindwa. Ngamanye amagama, isitshela ukuthi isivivinyo sinokwethenjelwa kangakanani (bheka futhi UWeltkovitz, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuziPhatha ngo-2009).

Ukunakwa okukhethiwe: [I-neuropsychology, ukunakwa] isakhi sokunakwa esihlobene nokukwazi ukwaba izinsizakalo zokubhekisisa kusethulo esifanele, sinciphise ukuphazamiseka kwesikhuthazo esikhona kepha esingahambisani nomsebenzi okufanele wenziwe. Isizinda sokunakwa esikhethiwe sifaka ukunakwa okugxile, ukunakwa okuhlukaniswe phakathi nokunakwa okushintshanayo (I-Vallar et al., Ukuvuselelwa Kwe-Neuropsychological, 2012).

B

I-Compact Bilingualism (noma izilimi eziningi): [ulimi] lapho izilimi ezimbili zifundwe ngasikhathi sinye (bheka UMarini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolimi, 2014: 68)

Izilimi ezimbili ezihlanganisiwe (noma ubuningi bezilimi): [ulimi] lapho izilimi ezimbili noma ngaphezulu zifundwe ngaphambi kokuthomba kodwa hhayi kumibuthano yomndeni (isb. ukudluliselwa) (bheka UMarini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolimi, 2014: 68)

Izilimi ezimbili ezingaphansi (noma ubuningi bezilimi): [ulimi] lapho kusetshenziswa ulimi olulodwa noma ngaphezulu kusetshenziswa ulimi lokuqala njengomlamuli (bona UMarini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolimi, 2014: 68)

Izilimi ezimbili zokuqala ezilandelanayo: [ulimi] lapho ingane ivezwe olimini lwesibili ngemuva kolokuqala, kepha nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ngaphambi kweminyaka yobudala eyisishiyagalombili (bona UMarini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolimi, 2014: 68)

Izilimi ezimbili ezilandelanayo ezilandelanayo: [ulimi] lapho ingane ivezwe olimini lwesibili ngemuva kolokuqala, kepha ngemuva kweminyaka eyisishiyagalombili (bheka UMarini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolimi, 2014: 68)

Izilimi ezimbili kanyekanye: [ulimi] lapho ingane ivezwe izilimi ezimbili kusukela ezinsukwini zokuqala zokuphila (bheka UMarini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolimi, 2014: 68)

C

Isigwebo senkwali (noma ibinzana lokusekela): ibinzana elivame ukusetshenziswa elingasetshenziswa ukukhipha amagama athile (isib: "Ngiyacela, nginike ...").

circumlocution: [ukusetshenziswa kwezilimi] ukusetshenziswa kwegama elithi "ukuguqulwa kwamagama" ukubhekisa kumagama angenakubuyisa (kuvame kakhulu kuma-aphasias) Isibonelo: "lowo ukusika isinkwa" ukusho "ummese".

Ikhono sipelingi: [ukufunda] ukukwazi ukuhlonipha imithetho nemihlangano ekhona ngolimi lwethu lwamanje oluqondisa ukuguqulwa kolimi olulalelwe noma olucatshangelwe olimini olwethulwe ngama-graphemes (Tressoldi noCornoldi, 2000, Ibhethri lokuhlola amakhono okubhala nokupela esikoleni esiphoqelelwe)

Ukuxhumana Ngezokuxhumana Nokungenelela (i-CAA): noma yikuphi ukuxhumana okuthatha isikhundla noma okukhulisa ulimi olunamazwi; indawo yokuzivivinya emtholampilo efuna ukunxenxa ukukhubazeka kwesikhashana noma okuhlala njalo kwabantu abanezidingo zokuxhumana eziyinkimbinkimbi (ASHA, 2005, ekhonjiwe ku UConstantine, Wakha izincwadi nezindaba nge-CAA, 2011: 54)

I-Conduites d'approche: [aphasia] ukuzama ukusondela kwagama ngokusebenzisa iziqalo zamanga noma ubuhlakani befonotiki. Isibonelo: "la pa ... pasca, pasma, pastia ..." ukusho "pasta" (bheka isibonelo Marini, Neurolinguistics Manual, 2018: 143 e I-Mazzucchi, ukuvuselelwa kwe-Neuropsychological, 2012)

ingxoxo: [I-neuropsychology] kumongo wokuphazamiseka kwememori kuwuphawu "oluhle" olungiselelwe njengokukhiqizwa ngokungakhethi kwezitatimende noma ngezenzo ezingahambisani nesizinda noma esedlule, isimo samanje noma esizayo sesifundo (Kusuka ngentshebe, G. (1993b). Amaphethini ahlukile wokuhlangana. cortex, 29, 567-581) - sibonga u-Ilaria Zannoni

ukuhlanganisa: [Izibalo, indlela yokucwaninga] ukuzihlanganisa phakathi kokuhluka okubili okufana nokwahluka kolunye kufana nokwahluka kolunye. Ukwahluka okubili okuhlobene kuhlobene, ukuqina kokuqina kuzoba namandla. Ukuhlangana kuyahluka phakathi kwezikolo ezi-1 (njengoba kukhuphuka okukodwa okuguqukayo, ukwanda okungaphezulu kokuphakeme) no -1 (njengoba kukhuphuka okuguquguqukayo kokunye, kukhona ukwehla okungapheli kokunye; ngesibalo esingu-0, kukhona esikhundleni salokho ukungabikho okuphelele kokuxhumanisa phakathi kokuhluka okubili.
Ukuba khona kokuhlangana, noma kuqinile, akubonisi ukuxhumeka kwesizathu phakathi kokuhluka okubili (bheka futhi I-Welkowits, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuZiphatha, 2009).

Ukuhlwaya: [aphasia] isiphakamiso esincane, ifonimitha kanye / noma i-grapemic, esinikezwe esimweni lapho isiguli sehluleka ukubuyisa igama elihlosiwe ngokuzimele (bona, ngokwesibonelo, uCroroy et al., Kusetshenziswa ukukhishwa kwemigudu yokuqanjwa kwamagama ngokuzenzekelayo ukubikezela ukusabela kwento ekwelashweni kwe-anomia ku-aphasia, 2012)

D

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] ukucindezela kokufika kwe-neuronal kwesakhiwo esiqondiwe. Lokhu kwenzeka nge-lesion of the neurons ekusukeni kwama-axons afinyelela esakhiweni esiqondisiwe, noma nge-lesion of axons uqobo (bona futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

Ubuthakathaka bengqondo: [I-neuropsychology] indlela emnene yokuntuleka kwengqondo (bona futhi ubuhlakani bengqondo noma ukubuyiselwa kwengqondo), ebonakala ngokusebenza kahle kancane kwesilinganiso sokusebenza kwengqondo (IQ phakathi kuka-70 no-50), ubunzima ekuvumelaneni kwezenhlalo nasekubonakaleni kokusilela ngesikhathi sokuthuthuka

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] ukucindezela kokufika kwe-neuronal kwesakhiwo esiqondiwe. Lokhu kwenzeka nge-lesion of the neurons ekusukeni kwama-axons afinyelela esakhiweni esiqondisiwe, noma nge-lesion of axons uqobo (bona futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

Ukuwohloka kwe-Neuronal: [i-neuroscience] ukulahleka okuqhubekayo kwesakhiwo esithile nomsebenzi we-neuron noma iqembu lama-neurons okungaholela ekunyamalaleni kwawo (bona futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

muffling: [Ulimi] Inqubo yesistimu: ukufakwa komsindo nesithulu esihambisanayo. Isibonelo: "panana" ye "banana" (cf. Indatshana yethu ngePhonetics neFonology)

Ukuphambuka okujwayelekile (kusho ukuphambuka kwesikwele): [izibalo] zilinganisa ngokuhluka kwesethi yedatha, etholwe empandeni eyisikwele yokuhluka. Ibonisa ukuthi ingakanani idatha ehlakazekile ngokwesilinganiso (isb. Ingakanani iphambuka ngokwesilinganiso kuyo) kepha, ngokungafani nomehluko, le paradiyamu ivezwa kuyunithi efanayo yokulinganisa ngokwesilinganiso (bona futhi I-Welkowits, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuZiphatha, 2009).

dysgraphia: [ukufunda] ukubhala ngobunzima, ngaphandle kwalokhu kubangelwa ukuphazamiseka kwemizwa noma umkhawulo wokuqonda (Ajuriagu ter et al., L'écriture de l'enfant. 1 °. Ukuvela kwe-ecriture et ses hardés, 1979 cit .n UDi Brina et al., BHK, 2010)

Dyspraxia: [i-neuropsychology] isiphazamiso esithinta ukuqaphela kokuziphatha kwezimoto ezifundile, ikakhulukazi lezo ezibonwe okwamanje sokulingiswa. Akuncike ekushodeni kohlelo lwezimoto, ukuntuleka kwengqondo noma ukusilela kokunaka. Kuhlukahluka nge-apraxia ngoba igama elithi dyspraxia libhekisa kokuphazamiseka okubonwa ngesikhathi sokuthuthuka (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

I-verbal dyspraxia: [Ulimi] Ukuphazamiseka okuphakathi ohlelweni nasekufezekiseni ukunyakaza okucacile okudingeka ukwenziwa kwemisindo, amagama, amagama kanye nenhlangano eyilandelanayo (I-Chilosis neCerri, i-Verbal dyspraxia, 2009 vd. futhi ISabbadini, iDyspraxia eminyakeni yokukhula: izindlela zokuhlola nokungenelela, ngo-2005)

Ukuphazamiseka kokuthuthuka kolimi lwesibili: [lulimi] noma yikuphi ukungafaneleki kwezilimi okwenzeka ngesikhathi sokuthuthuka, ngokulimazeka okuthe xaxa kolimi ngokwalo, ezifundweni ezinesici esisodwa noma eziningi ezilandelayo: ukuphambuka kwengqondo, ukuphazamiseka okuthuthukile jikelele womsebenzi wokuzwa, ukungaphatheki kahle kwezenhlalo-namasiko (Gilardone, Casetta, Luciani, Ingane enenkinga yokukhuluma. Ukuhlola ukwelashwa kwenkulumo nokwelashwa, Cortina, Turin 2008).

Ubukhosi beHemispheric: [i-neuropsychology] ukuxhaphaka kwenhliziyo eyodwa phezu kolawulo lomsebenzi wokuqonda noma we-motor; ngakho-ke yisisekelo se-hemispheric lateralization. Izibonelo zingolimi, imvamisa ezinamandla asobunxele be-hemispheric, nezinqubo ze-visuo-spatial, ngokubusa okulungile kwe-hemispherical (bheka futhi I-Habib, i-Hemispheric Dominance, i-2009, i-EMC - i-Neurology, 9, 1-13)

E

ecolalia: [ulimi] ukuphindwaphindwa kwamagama noma imishwana kulalelwe, ngaphandle kokuwaqonda ngempela. Kwenzeka ngokomzimba ezinganeni ikakhulukazi eminyakeni eyi-2-3 (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37) nangokwengqondo kubantu abadala, isibonelo eParkinson's.

Umphumela Wokulindela: [izibalo] ukushintshwa kwemiphumela yocwaningo ngenxa yokulindela imiphumela eyondlisiwe ngumcwaningi noma ngezifundo zokuhlola uqobo. Kuchazwe okokuqala ngudokotela wezengqondo uRobert Rosenthal ngakho kwezinye izimo kuthiwa Umphumela weRosenthal (noma Umphumela wePygmalion o isiprofetho esikuzisekisayo). Kuyinto ebaluleke kakhulu okufanele icatshangelwe ocwaningweni lapho umphumela womuntu uyinto enqumayo futhi ngenxa yalesi sizathu lo mphumela uvame ukubizwa ngokuthi yinto ebucayi ezifundweni ngemiphumela yokwelashwa engasebenzisi iqembu elisebenzayo lokulawula (okusho ukuzibophezela) ekwelashweni noma okunye kokuya kokuhlolwa) noma okungasebenzisi noma yiliphi iqembu elilawulayo.

Umphumela Wemodi: [ukufunda] bona Ithiyori Eqondakalayo yokufunda kweMultimedia

Umphumela wePygmalion: vedi Umphumela wokufunda

Umphumela we-placebo: [i-psychology, umuthi] ukuthuthuka okunikezwe ukwelashwa ngaphandle kwemiphumela ethile futhi kuxhunyaniswe ethembeni elibekwe ekwelapheni uqobo. Lo mphumela, ngokufanayo neUmphumela wokulindelwa, kuvame ukuba yisithiyo ocwaningweni ngemiphumela yokwelashwa futhi igcinwa ilawulwa ukusetshenziswa kwamaqembu ezifundo, ezibizwa ngezawo amaqembu okulawula, okungekho ukuphathwa okuhlinzekwayo noma okungelona iqiniso okuyiphathisiwe

Umphumela we-redundancy: [ukufunda] bona Ithiyori yokuQaphela yokufunda iMultimodal

Umphumela weRosenthal: vedi Umphumela wokulindelwa

hemianopia: [i-neuropsychology] ukulahleka kombono engxenyeni yensimu ebonakalayo (noma i-quadrant eyodwa esimweni se quadrantanopia) izilonda ezilandelayo ze-opic chiasm, ipheshana le-optic, imisebe ye-optical noma i-cortex ebonakalayo (bheka futhi ILadàvas neBerti, iN Manual of Neuropsychology, 2014)

Ukuzikhulula kwendawo (bheka Ukunganaki)

isitatimende: [Ulimi] kuye ngesikhombimsebenzisi esisetshenzisiwe, singachazwa ngokuthi "ukuphuma komsindo phakathi kokumiswa okwesikhashana okubili (okugcwele noma okungenalutho) okuhlala okungenani imizuzwana emibili" (umbandela we-acoustic), "i-homogeneous conceptual block, noma isiphakamiso esilula noma esiyinkimbinkimbi" ( Isimangalo se-semantic), "umusho omkhulu olandelwa uchungechunge lwababumba abakheke kahle abasezingeni lesibili" (nenqubo yolimi). (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 69)

Iphutha lokuthayipha I: [i-psychometry] yenqaba umqondo oyize lapho lokhu kuyiqiniso.
Isibonelo: umcwaningi ucabanga ukuthi ukuphathwa kolimi olusha kuthuthukisa izici zezimpawu zempilo kunokwelashwa okujwayelekile; ngemuva kokuhlola i-hypothesis, yenqaba i-H0 (isb. ukuthi izindlela ezimbili zokwelapha zilingana) futhi yamukela i-H1 (isb. ukuthi ukwelashwa okusha kungcono) kodwa eqinisweni izindlela zokwelapha ezimbili zinikeza imiphumela efanayo futhi umehluko otholakele uhlobene amaphutha enkambiso noma umphumela wamathuba (bona futhi UWeltkovitz, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuziPhatha ngo-2009).

Iphutha lohlobo II: [i-psychometry] yemukela umbono oyize lapho lokhu kungamanga.
Isibonelo: umcwaningi ucabanga ukuthi ukuphathwa kolimi olusha kuthuthukisa izici zezimpawu zempilo kunokwelashwa okujwayelekile; ngemuva kokuhlola i-hypothesis, yamukela i-H0 (isb. ukuthi izindlela ezimbili zokwelapha zilingana) futhi yenqaba i-H1 (isb. ukuthi ukwelashwa okusha kungcono) kodwa eqinisweni izindlela zokwelapha ezimbili zinikeza imiphumela ehlukile. Ukuntuleka kwemiphumela kuleli cala, ngakolunye uhlangothi, kuzoncika emaphutheni asendleleni, izikolo eziguqukayo kancane ngenxa yomphumela wecala, noma ngenxa yamandla aphansi wokuhlolwa kwezibalo (bheka futhi UWeltkovitz, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuziPhatha ngo-2009).

F

Amaqiniso we-Arithmetic: [mathematics] Yimiphumela yenqubo ye-arithmetic okungadingeki ukuthi ibalwe, kepha isivele inkumbulo. Isibonelo, amatafula wokuphindaphinda nezinombolo ezilula nokususa. (UPoli, uMolin, uLucangeli noCornoldi, IMemocalcolo, 2006: 8)

Amafilidi: [i-aphasia] ikhefu eligcwele lakhiwe yimisindo, imisindvo, amasilabhasi noma izingcezu zamagama. Zitholakala kakhulu ekuqaleni kwamanga. "Nanamuhla usuku oluhle" (bheka isibonelo Marini, Neurolinguistics Manual, 2018: 143)

phonology: [izilimi] Isijeziso esifundisisa ikhono lokufunda izintshumayelo esikhulumi esinalo lolimi lwebele, okungukuthi, uhlelo oluthuthuka ekuqaleni kweminyaka yokuphila komuntu futhi lapho kusungulwa khona umehluko phakathi kwemisindo ehlukanisa izincazelo nemisindo ukuthi ungazihlukanisi (I-Nespor, phonology, 1993: 17)

Ibinzana lemibala: [Ulimi] Indlela ehlanganisa umbala ohlukile nento ngayinye yomusho (indatshana, isihloko, isenzo ...). Ingasetshenziselwa imisho ebhaliwe naleyo eyenziwe ngama-pictograph (bheka, isibonelo, I-AA VV, i-protocol yokwelapha yokukhuluma i-De Filippis, 2006).

Fricazione: [Ulimi] Inqubo yesistimu: ukufakwa komsindo ofundisayo noma ohlanganiswe ngenhlokomo. Isibonelo: "fasso" for "iqiniso" (cf. Indatshana yethu ngePhonetics neFonology)

Functors: [izilimi] vd. Vula futhi uvale amagama weklasi

Imisebenzi Yokuphatha: [I-neuropsychology] isethi eyinkimbinkimbi yemisebenzi yokuqonda yokuhlelela nokulawulwa kokuzithandela kokuziphatha, okubalulekile emisebenzini engeyona eyenzakalelayo edinga ukubhekwa okubalulekile kokunakwa (bheka futhi indatshana yethu ngemisebenzi yezokuphatha; UGrossi noTrojano, i-Neuropsychology yeForal Lobes, 2013).

G

Ukuhlwitha: [Ulimi] Inqubo yesistimu: ukufakwa kwekhonkolo esikhundleni se-semicononant. Isibonelo: "foia" ye "qabunga "(cf. Indatshana yethu ngePhonetics neFonology)

Isenzo se-Batonic: uhlobo lomnyakazo lapho izandla zihamba ukusuka phezulu kuya phansi ukumaka ama-syllables egama noma amagama omusho (ngendima yezimpawu zomzimba. Isisekelo sokwelashwa kwenkulumo eminyakeni yokukhula, iphe. I-234)

Ukulimala kobuchopho obuKhulu be-Serious: [I-neurology]: Ngokuthi "ukulimala kakhulu kobuchopho obutholakele" (i-GCA) sisho ukulimala kobuchopho, ngenxa yokuhlukumezeka kwe-cranioencephalic noma ezinye izimbangela (ubuchopho be-brain, hemorrhage, njll), njengokunquma isimo se-coma (GCS = / < I-8 isikhathi esingaphezu kwamahora angama-24), ne-sensorimotor, ukuphazamiseka kwengqondo noma zokuziphatha, okuholela ekukhubazekeni okukhulu (cf. Ingqungquthela Yokuvumelana: Umkhuba Omuhle Wemitholampilo Ngokuvuselelwa Kwezibhedlela kwabantu abanobuchopho obukhulu).

Iqembu lokulawula: [indlela yokucwaninga] ocwaningweni lapho ifunda khona umphumela wokuhlukahluka okuzimele emaqenjini ezifundo, ngokwesibonelo ukwelashwa, isampula livame ukuhlukaniswa okungenani ngamaqembu amancane okungenani amabili: iqembu lokuhlola, elithola ukwelashwa ngaphansi kophenyo (okuhlukile ezimele), neqembu lokulawula, okuyinto esikhundleni salo elingatholi noma yikuphi ukwelashwa noma okuthola elinye elehlukile (ngakho-ke alikho ngaphansi kwethonya lokwehluka okuzimele). Iqembu lokulawula yilona lapho imiphumela yempatho iqhathaniswa eqenjini lokuhlola ukunciphisa ithonya lokuthatheka okuthile okungenzeka (bona futhi U-Ercolani, Areni noMannetti, Ucwaningo Kwezengqondo, 1990).

I

Ukuphazanyiswa kwe-Cognitive-motor: [I-neuropsychology, multiple sclerosis] into ebonwa ngenkathi kwenziwa kanyekanye umsebenzi wezimoto (ngokwesibonelo ukuhamba) kanye nomsebenzi wokuqonda (ngokwesibonelo usho wonke amagama aqala ngohlamvu olunikeziwe); kulezi zimo kungenzeka ukubona ukuncipha kwezimoto, ukusebenza kwengqondo noma ukusebenza zombili. Ukuphazanyiswa kwe-cognitive-motor kudingidwa ikakhulukazi esimweni se-multiple sclerosis njengoba kwenzeka kaningi nangokuphawuleka kakhulu kunakubantu abanempilo. (Bona iRuggieri et al., 2018, Imephu yesibonakaliso se-Lesion yokuphazanyiswa kwengqondo-kwasemuva kokuqaqanjelwa kwe-sclerosis eminingi).

Ukuhlanganiswa kwe-Cross-modal: [neuropsychology] phenomenon equkethe ukuhlanganisa imininingwane kusuka kuziteshi ezahlukahlukene zemizwa eseceleni elilodwa. Ngokuqondile, kungumbono obandakanya ukusebenzisana phakathi kwezindlela ezimbili noma ezingafani zemizwa (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crossmodal).

Isikhathi sokuqiniseka: [i-psychometry] ibanga lamanani phakathi kwemikhawulo emibili (ephansi nangaphezulu) ngaphakathi lapho kutholakala ipharamitha ethile (ngokuzethemba).
Isibonelo: uma ngemuva kokuthi nginikeze i-WAIS-IV i-IQ engu-102 kwavela isikhawu sokuzetheza esingu-95% phakathi kuka-97 no-107, lokhu kusho ukuthi cishe ku-95% i-IQ "eyiqiniso" yomuntu ohlolisisiwe iyinani eliphakathi kuka-97 no-107. XNUMX (bheka futhi UWeltkovitz, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuziPhatha ngo-2009).

Eminye imibono: [i-psychometry] ikhonjiswe ne-H1 emkhakheni wokucwaninga yi-hypothesis eyenziwe ngumcwaningi futhi okuhloswe ngayo ukuthi ihlolwe.
Uma, ngokwesibonelo, umcwaningi eqiniseka ukuthi enye indlela yokwelapha inikeza imiphumela ehlukile kunendlela ejwayelekile yokwelashwa, i-H1 izomela ubukhona balo mehluko phakathi kwalezi zindlela ezimbili ezihlukile.
Kuchazwa futhi njengokusho ukuthi i-null hypothesis ingamanga, futhi icacisa amanani ngenani elinikeziwe lenzalo (bheka futhi UWeltkovitz, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuziPhatha ngo-2009).

I-Null hypothesis: [I-psychometry] ibuye ikhonjiswe nge-H0, emkhakheni wokucwaninga ibhekisa kumqondo obhekwe njengeyiqiniso ngaphandle kobufakazi obuphikisana nalokho obekungaphikisa lokho.
Uma, ngokwesibonelo, kuhloswe ukukhombisa ukuthi ukwelashwa okukodwa kusebenza kakhulu kunolunye, i-H0 izomela umbono wokuthi akukho mehluko phakathi kwalezi zindlela zokwelapha ezimbili.
Iphinde ichazwe njengaleyo lapho inani lepharamitha elivezwe khona licacisiwe noma umehluko olindelekile (ovame ukuhambisana no-zero) phakathi kwamapharamitha wabantu abaningi (bheka futhi UWeltkovitz, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuziPhatha ngo-2009).

L

I-average average of the Statement (LME): [Ulimi] lwethulwa nguBrown ngonyaka we-1973, umqondo wobude besisho somusho ukhombisa isilinganiso samagama noma i-morphemes esetshenziswa yisipika kusampula - imvamisa - yemisho eyi-100 (bheka isitatimende). Ingenye yezinkomba zamakhono ezilimi ekukhiqizeni (bheka, uBrown, Ulimi lokuqala, 1973).

M

I-The Mapping Theory: [aphasia] Hypothesis ngokusho kweziguli ezinama-agrammatic, ngenkathi zigcina amandla amahle e-syntactic, zinobunzima ukwabela izindima ezikhethekile zesakhiwo somusho esimeni sokuphikisana sesenzo (cf.Boscarato neModena ku- UFlosi, uCharlemagne noRossetto, Lukuvuselela umuntu one-aphasia, 2013: 57)

I-Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT): [i-aphasia] indlela yokuvuselela kabusha i-aphasia esebenzisa izakhi zokukhuluma (i-melody kanye nesigqi) ngokucula (bheka uNorton et al., I-Melodic Intonation Therapy: Ukwabelana ngemininingwane yokuthi kwenziwa kanjani nokuthi kungani kungasiza, 2009)

Inkumbulo yokusebenza: [I-neuropsychology] Uhlelo oluvumela ukuthi ugcine okwesikhashana imininingwane ukuyiphatha noma ukuyisebenzisa (cf. UBaddeley noHitch, Memory yokusebenza, 1974). Bheka nendatshana yethu Yini ukusebenza inkumbulo.

Imemori eqondayo: [i-neuropsychology] amandla okukhumbula ukwenza isenzo ngemuva kokusihlela (bheka isibonelo, URouleau et al. Ukulimazeka kwememori okungenzeka ku-sclerosis eminingi: isibuyekezo, i-2017). Bheka futhi i-athikili yethu ejulile Imemori ebonakalayo ku-sclerosis eminingi

Meta-ukuhlaziywa: [izibalo] izinhlobo zokuhlaziywa kwezibalo ezivumela ukufingqa imiphumela yezifundo ezahlukahlukene eziphathelene nesihloko esifanayo, ukuzama ukunciphisa imiphumela yemithombo yokuhluka kwemiphumela yezifundo ezizodwa, okwenza noma yikuphi ukwenzeka kuqubuke (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

Metacognition: igama elibhekisa ekuqwashiseni ngolwazi lomuntu uqobo, ngasikhathi sinye, izinqubo namasu okulawula (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

I-Metafonologia: Amandla wokuqhathanisa, izingxenye kanye nokubandlulula amagama avezwe ngomlomo ngesisekelo sokwakheka kwawo kophimbo (Umbhishobhi & I-Snowling, i-dyslexia ethuthukisayo kanye nokukhubazeka kolimi oluthile: okufanayo noma okuhlukile?, Psychol Bulletin 130 (6), 858-886, 2004)

ukumodeliswa (bheka Ukubumba)

Isimilo esidonsekelayo nesizuzisayo: i-Morphemes esusayo iguqula okushiwo yisisekelo (isb. Cas + in + a); morphemes inflectional kuphela siguqula izigaba amagama inflectional. Isibonelo, ubulili noma inombolo: Cas + a (cf. Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 13)

N

Ukunganaki: [neuropsychology] neuropsychological syndrome, imvamisa ibangelwa ukulimala kobuchopho, okubandakanya ukuntuleka kokuqwashisa nge-spatial. Umuntu owethula lezi zimpawu ukhombisa ubunzima bokuthi ahlole isikhala sendawo ephathelene nokulimala kobuchopho, ukuqwashisa ngokungemthetho kwesimo esikhona engxenyeni yendawo yomuntu siqu (imvamisa ngaphakathi), ukubukeka kobuntu noma okwangaphandle (bheka futhi i-athikili yethu Unganaki: uhlangothi olumnyama lomhlaba)

Ukunganaki kwendawo (bheka Ukunganaki)

I-Mirror neurons: [neuroscience] isigaba se-neurons esenziwa zombili lapho umuntu enza isenzo nalapho lowo muntu ofanayo ebuka isenzo esifanayo esenziwe kwesinye isifundo (https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroni_specchio)

O

holophrasis: [izilimi] kusetshenziswa igama elilodwa lesitatimende noma isicelo esidinga umusho sonke. Kujwayelekile ukukhula kokuqala kolimi enganeni. Ex: "cua" ye "ngifuna amanzi".

P

paraphasia: [aphasia] igama likhiqizwe ngokungesilo mayelana nokuqondiwe kwelitshe. I-Paraphasia ingaba ngefoni (isib. "Libbium" ye "ncwadi") noma i-semantic ("incwajana" ye "ncwadi"). (bheka isibonelo Marini, Neurolinguistics Manual, 2018: 143)

Vula futhi uvale amagama weklasi: [izilimi] amagama eklasi elivulekile (noma okuqukethwe amagama) yizabizwana, iziphawulo ezifanele, iziqu ezilandelanayo nezandiso eziphelela ku-in -mente; amagama eklasi elivaliwe (noma amagama okusetshenziswa o functors. Ngenkathi okuqukethwe kwamagama kudlulisa imiqondo yama-semantic, ama-funerals aveza ubudlelwano phakathi kwamagama.

Ukuhlaziywa Kwezakhi Zezwi: [aphasia] indlela ehlongozwe ngu Leonard, Rochon noLaird (2008) okubandakanya ukwethula isiguli ngesithombe maphakathi neshidi ngesicelo sokutholwa kwegama elitshengisiwe. Kungakhathaleki ukuthi iphumelele kanjani, isiguli sicelwa ukuba siphinde sibuyisele igama elinemvumelwano, ifonimitha yokuqala, elinye igama eliqala ngoqalo olulodwa nenani lamagama. (bona uBoscarato noModena ku UFlosi, uCharlemagne noRossetto, Lukuvuselela umuntu one-aphasia, 2013: 47)

I-Neuronal plasticity: [neuropsychology] Amathuba okuba amaseli ezinzwa akwazi ukwenza eminye imisebenzi lapho kunesidingo. (UGollin, Ferrari, Peruzzi, Ukuvivinya umzimba ngengqondo, 2007: 15).

Amandla wokuhlola wesayensi: [i-psychometry] isho ukuthi kungenzeka ukwenqaba i-null hypothesis, ngokuhlolwa kwezibalo, lapho empeleni lokhu kungamanga.
Isibonelo: uma ukuhlolwa okuthile okunosayizi othile wesampula kunamandla wezibalo ka-80%, lokhu kusho ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi kube ne-80% yokuthola idatha esenza ukuthi senqabe i-null hypothesis, inqobo nje uma lokhu empeleni kungamanga (bheka futhi UWeltkovitz, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuziPhatha ngo-2009).

Inqubo yesistimu: [Ulimi] Ukufakwa esikhundleni kolimi olunye kolunye, kanti ukulandelana kwesilabhasi kuhlala kungashintshiwe (bona, ngokwesibonelo, ISantoro, iPanero neCianetti, Ababili abancane 1, 2011).

Inqubo yokwakhiwa: [Ulimi] Ukuguqulwa kwesakhiwo segama le-syllabic, noshintsho ngobuningi bezinto nokulandelana kwama-conconants kanye noonkamisa abakha (bona ngokwesibonelo, ISantoro, iPanero neCianetti, Ababili abancane 1, 2011)

Isiprofetho esikuzisekisayo: vedi Umphumela wokulindelwa

Ukuphakamisa Ukusebenziseka Kokuxhumana Kwe-Aphasics (PACE) : [aphasia] indlela e-pragmatic ekwelapheni i-aphasia lapho umeluleki wenkulumo eveza wonke amasu angahle aqinisekise futhi aqinise ukuneleka kokuxhumana kwesiguli (bona sibukeze amaCilongo ku UFlosi, uCharlemagne noRossetto, Lukuvuselela umuntu one-aphasia, 2013: 105 e I-Charlemagne, izindlela zePragmatic zokwelashwa kwe-aphasia. Kusuka kumamodeli wokuphikelela kuya kwindlela ye-PACE, 2002)

Imiphumela enesisindo: [Psychometry] Ukuguqulwa kokubala kwamaphuzu we-Z (okushintshiwe ngo-0 kanye nokuphambuka okujwayelekile 1) kube isikolo esinamaphuzu wokuphambuka okungu-10 kanye nokwejwayelekile 3. Uma kuqhathaniswa nenqaku le-Z kuhlukile ngakubukeka kuphela kepha izakhiwo zihlala zinjalo. Inzuzo yayo ukuthi ikwenza kungathandeki ukuthi kutholwe inani elinenani elingelona, ​​noma ngabe liphansi kunesilinganiso. Zisetshenziswa ekuhlolweni okuhlukahlukene njenge, ngokwesibonelo, i-NEPSY-II.

Isikolo se-Scalar: [Psychometry] Ukuguqulwa kokubala kwamaphuzu we-Z (okushintshiwe ngo-0 kanye nokuphambuka okujwayelekile 1) kube isikolo esinamaphuzu wokuphambuka okungu-10 kanye nokwejwayelekile 3. Uma kuqhathaniswa nenqaku le-Z kuhlukile ngakubukeka kuphela kepha izakhiwo zihlala zinjalo. Inzuzo yayo ukuthi ikwenza kungathandeki ukuthi kutholwe inani elinenani elingelona, ​​noma ngabe liphansi kunesilinganiso. Zisetshenziswa ekuhlolweni okuhlukahlukene njenge, ngokwesibonelo, i-WISC-IV.

Izinga elijwayelekile: [psychometry] isikolo esisetshenziswe kuzivivinyo eziningana (isibonelo ku I-BVN 5-11) enezakhiwo ezifana ne-IQ (bona futhi i-Intelliual Quotient).

T amaphuzu (Isikali): [Psychometry] Ukuguqulwa kokubala kwamaphuzu we-Z (okushintshiwe ngo-0 kanye nokuphambuka okujwayelekile 1) kube isikolo esinamaphuzu angama-50 nokuphambuka okujwayelekile 10. Uma kuqhathaniswa nenqaku le-Z, lihluke ngokubonakala kuphela kepha izakhiwo zihlala zinjalo. Usizo lwayo ukuthi lwenza ukuthi kube khona amamaki ngevelu engemihle ngendlela engathandeki, noma ngabe iphansi kunesilinganiso (bona futhi U-Ercolani, Areni noMannetti, Ucwaningo Kwezengqondo, 1990). Zisetshenziswa ekuhlolweni okuhlukahlukene njenge, ngokwesibonelo, the UMbhoshongo waseLondon.

Z amaphuzu (amaphuzu ajwayelekile): [izibalo, i-psychometry] amaphuzu abonisa ukuthi lingakanani inani liphambuka kumaphakathi olindelekile, eliqhathanisa nokuphambuka okujwayelekile. Izikolo zisho ukuphambuka okungu-0 nokujwayelekile 1 ukuze inani le-Z elingu-0 libonisa inani elihambisana kahle nokulindelwe, inani eliphakeme kune-0 libonisa inani eliphakeme kunesilinganiso bese kuthi amaphuzu aphansi kuno-0 akhombise inani eliphansi kunesilinganiso. Kutholakala ngokususa inani eliphansi kusuka kunani elibanjiwe futhi kuhlukaniswe konke ngokuphambuka okujwayelekile kwesilinganiso: (inani elibonakalayo - abezindaba) / ukuphambuka okujwayelekile (bheka futhi I-Welkowits, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuZiphatha, 2009).

Q

Quadranopsia: (Bheka hemianopia)

R

Isivivinyo Esilawulwa Ngokungahleliwe (RCT): [Indlela yokucwaninga] ichazwa njengokwakhiwa kocwaningo lokuhlola “ngempela” ngoba ivumela ukulawulwa kokuhlola okuphelele kokuhlukahluka kwenzalo. Kuhlinzeka ukuthi izihloko lapho ucwaningo lwenziwa khona zabelwe ngokungahleliwe (zenziwa ngokungahleliwe) eqenjini lokuhlola noma eqenjini lokulawula ukuze wonke umuntu abe nethuba elifanayo lokugcina kokukodwa noma kokunye (amaqembu angenalo utho), ngaleyo ndlela kunciphisa amathuba okuba amaqembu ahlukile kakhulu komunye nomunye, okungaveza ukungabaza ngemiphumela engahle ibe khona yokuhlukahluka kwenzalo (bheka futhi U-Ercolani, Areni noMannetti, Ucwaningo Kwezengqondo, 1990).

Isilinganiso se-Percentile: [izibalo, i-psychometry] ukuma okujwayelekile kususelwa endaweni lapho izihloko zihlala khona ekuhanjisweni kwezikolo esikalini esukela ku-1 kuye ku-99. Zisetshenziswa ekuhlolweni okuningi, isibonelo Ibhethri lase-Italy le-ADHD (bheka futhi U-Ercolani, Areni noMannetti, Ucwaningo Kwezengqondo, 1990).

Ukwelapha Ngeqiniso Kweqiniso (i-ROT): [I-neuropsychology] Ukwelapha inhloso yawo eyinhloko ukuthuthukisa ukuqondisisa ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, esikhaleni nangokuzihlonipha. Kukhona i-ROT ehlelekile (uchungechunge oluchazwe kahle emihlanganweni) kanye ne-ROT engekho emthethweni, esetshenziswa ngabasebenzi abangaqeqeshiwe usuku lonke. (UGollin, Ferrari, Peruzzi, Ukuvivinya umzimba ngengqondo, 2007: 13)

Unciphise i-Syntax Therapy (REST): [aphasia] Ukwelashwa kweziguli ze-agrammatic aphasic, esikhundleni sokugxila ekukhiqizweni kwemisho efanelekile, kusiza ukusetshenziswa kwezakhi ezenziwe lula njengalezo ezisetshenziswa colloquically ngezifundo ezijwayelekile (eziphakanyisiwe ngu Springer et al., 2000; vd. Ibhesi, Yazi uphinde ufundise ama-aphasia, 2009: 35)

Ukuguqulwa kabusha [ukwelashwa kwenkulumo]: inqubo equkethe ukuphindaphinda lokho umshumanisi asanda kukhiqiza kushiya incazelo ingashintshiwe kepha kunikeze imodeli efanelekile ngokungeza igama elilahlekile noma ukufaka ithemu ngegama elifanele noma elifanelekile (ukuthola eminye imininingwane bheka "Amasu wokungenela" ku Isisekelo sokwelashwa kwenkulumo eminyakeni yokukhula, iphe. I-235)

ukuqinisa: [i-psychology, yokuziphatha] isisusa esikhulisa noma esinciphisa amathuba okuvela kokuziphatha okuthile. Ukuqiniswa kuhlukaniswe izigaba ezine eziyinhloko: okuyisisekelo, okuyisisekelo (noma okulungiselelwe), ukuqinisela okuhle nokubi. Ukuqiniswa okuyinhloko yilokho okuhlobene nokusinda (ukudla, isiphuzo, ukulala, ubulili ...) ngenkathi ukuqiniswa kwesibili kungathathi hlangothi kokuqala okuthola inani lokuqinisa njengoba kuhlotshaniswa nezinye izisusa ezivele zinamandla okuqinisa. Ukugcizelela okuvumayo kuvame ukubonwa yindaba njengento emnandi futhi kukhulisa amathuba okuziphatha okuthile abahlobana nakho ngenkathi ukuqiniswa okungekuhle kukhulisa amathuba okuziphatha ngokuyeka ukuvuselela okungekuhle njengomphumela wokusebenzisa kwawo (bona futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

Ukulondolozwa kwengqondo: [I-neuropsychology, ukuguga] amasu wokuqonda, ahlukahluka ukusuka kumuntu kuya kumuntu, asetshenziswa ukuqhathanisa noma ukunxephezela izinqubo ze-pathological eziqhubekayo. Zincike ezimeni ezihlukile kumanethiwekhi we-neural nazo ezithonywe okuhlangenwe nakho kwempilo okufana nemfundo, imisebenzi nemisebenzi yokuzijabulisa (bona futhi UPassafiume noDi Giacomo, Isifo sokuwohloka kwe-Alzheimer's, 2006).

S

Izigaba Zocingo Ezingahleliwe (i-SFI): [Ulimi] (noma ama-syllabic, noma ama-filomorphemic fillers) athatha isikhundla esimisiwe esitatimendeni futhi mhlawumbe afeza indima "yezimpawu zokumakisha" zezinto ezisebenzayo (Bottari et al., Ukutholakala kokuhleleka kokutholwa kwe-morphology yamahhala yase-Italy, 1993, kukhonjiwe ku: Ripamonti et al., ULepi: Ulimi oluhlaba umxhwele ebuntwaneni, 2017)

Ukuhlaziywa kwesici seSemantic: [aphasia] indlela ecabanga ukuthi ukuvuselelwa kwemininingwane eqanjiwe yenzeka ngokufinyelela kumanethiwekhi e-semantic ngokuya nge-hypothesis yokuthi ukusebenza kwezimpawu ze-semantic zelitshe kufanele kusebenze ilitshe ngokwalo ngaphezu komkhawulo walo, lula ukubuyiswa kwegama, nomphumela wokuguqulwa kwethagethi kwamanye amatshe okuhlaselwa ahlanganyela izici ezifanayo ze-semantic (bona iBoscarato neModena ku- UFlosi, uCharlemagne noRossetto, Lukuvuselela umuntu one-aphasia, 2013: 44).

Ukuzwela kokuhlolwa: [izibalo]: ikhono lovivinyo lokuhlonza izikhonzi ngesimo esithile (ama-positives eqiniso), ngokwesibonelo ukuba khona kwe-dyslexia. Ngamanye amagama, yingxenye yezifundo okuthi, kuhlolo, zivivinye zinesici sesici ngokuqhathaniswa nenani lezifundo ezinazo empeleni; uthatha isibonelo se-dyslexia futhi, ukuzwela kuyingxenye yezifundo lapho kuhlolo oluthile kuthathwa dyslexic, uma kuqhathaniswa nengqikithi yalabo empeleni dyslexic.
Uma sibiza u-S umuzwa wokuzwela, Inani le-dyslexics elikhonjwe ngokufanele ngovivinyo (ama-positives eqiniso) no-B inani le-dyslexics elingatholakali kuhlolo (ukungabi nalutho), khona-ke ukuzwela kungavezwa njengo-S = A / (A + B) .

Ukubumba: [Psychology, behaviour] Ukufakwa ngumhloli wempendulo esebenzayo eceliwe. Kuqukethe ekugcizeleleni ngokuhlelekile ukusebenza kwecala elisondela ekuthini impendulo izotholwa (ngokwesibonelo, ngokuletha inyamazane kancane kancane ukucindezela i-lever) (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

Ukushintsha okubonayo: [neuropsychology] Ukushintsha kokugxila kokunakwa kusuka entweni eyodwa, noma kumcimbi, kuya kwesinye, zombili eziqukethwe imvelo ezungeze isihloko (I-Marzocchi, iMolin, iPoli, Ukunakwa kanye ne-Metacognition, 2002: 12).

ICerebellar Cognitive-Affective Syndrome: [i-neuropsychology] ukudalwa kokuqonda kwengqondo nokuthintekayo okuhambisana nokulimala kwesibindi Ukushoda kungaba kuningi futhi kuthinte izizinda eziningi ezinjengememori yokusebenza, ulimi, imisebenzi ephezulu, ukufundwa okucacisiwe nenqubo, ukucubungula okwenziwa ngendawo, ukuphathwa kokunakwa, ukulawulwa okuhambelana nokuziphatha I-cerebellum nokukhononda, 2018).

I-disconnection syndrome: [i-neuropsychology] ukuguqulwa kwengqondo okuhlobene nokukhishwa kwezixha zezindaba ezimhlophe ezixhuma izindawo ezihlukile zobuchopho (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

Isifo seBalint Holmes: [neuropsychology] i-neuropsychological syndrome ebonakala ngo-simultanagnosia (ukusilela ekubonakalisweni kwesithombe somhlaba lapho kuqhathaniswa nezinto eziningi), i-oculomotor apraxia (isici ekuqondiseni ngamabomu ukuqondisisa kwephuzu) ne-opic ataxia (ukuntuleka kokunyakaza kokufezekiswa nge umlenze). Lesi sifo sivame ukuxhunyaniswa nezilonda ezimbili zeparieto-occipital (bheka futhi ILadàvas neBerti, iN Manual of Neuropsychology, 2014).

Uhlelo Lokunakekela Abaphethe: [imisebenzi ephezulu] UNorman noSharice benze imodeli enezinhlelo ezimbili ezisebenzayo. Esimweni sokuqala uhlelo olujwayelekile lokulawula lapho kumelwa khona izindlela ezahlukahlukene zokufunda eziguqulwe ngokweqile, ezikhethiwe ekuphenduleni okushukumisayo kwemvelo, kususelwa kuzinga lokusebenziseka ngokuzenzakalelayo; esimweni sesibili, lapho ukukhetha okuzenzakalelayo kunganele ukwenza kusebenze ukusebenza okuthile noma ukwenza kusebenze okunjalo kungasebenzi esimweni esithile, Uhlelo Lokuqapha Olwengamele evumela ukwenziwa kabusha kwamaphethini wokuziphatha ahlukahlukene ukukhetha eyodwa efanelekile ngokuya ngezimo (bheka futhi I-Mazzucchi, ukuvuselelwa kwe-Neuropsychological, 2012).

I-Somatoagnosia: [i-neuropsychology] ukulahleka kokuqwashisa iphethini yomzimba womuntu (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001)

Sound: [Ulimi] Inqubo yohlelo: ukufakwa komsindo oyisithulu ngomsindo ohambelana nawo. Isibonelo: "bane" for "isinkwa" (cf. Indatshana yethu ngePhonetics neFonology).

Ukucaciswa kokuhlolwa [izibalo]: ikhono lovivinyo lokuhlonza izikhonzi ezingenazo isimilo esithile (okubi kwangempela), ngokwesibonelo ukungabikho komqondo wokuwohloka komqondo. Ngamanye amagama, yingxenye yezihloko okuthi lapho kuvivinywa kungabi nabuntu obuhle ngokuqhathaniswa nenani lezifundo ezingenayo ngempela; ukuthatha isibonelo sokuwohloka komqondo futhi, ukucaciswa kwengxenye yezifundo ezinempilo (ngaphandle kokuwohloka komqondo) esivivinyweni esithile, uma kuqhathaniswa nenani lalabo abaphilile impela.
Uma sibiza ukucaciswa kwe-S, inombolo yokuhlunga ehlonishwe ngokufanele ngovivinyo (okubi kwangempela) no-B inani lezinto ezibucayi ezingatholakali kuhlolo (positives ngamanga), khona-ke ukucaciswa kungavezwa njenge-S = A / (A + B) .

stereo: [Psychology] Ukuphindaphinda njalo kokuziphatha okukodwa kochungechunge olulodwa. Zingaba zezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene: i-motor, ekubhalweni okukhulunywa noma okukhulunywayo, emidlalweni, ekudwebeni, njll. (bheka futhi I-Galimberti, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2018).

Ukuyeka: [ulimi] ukufakelwa kwefonimi eqhubekayo naleyo engapheli (ex: dal per giallo) (cf. Indatshana yethu ngePhonetics neFonology).

subitizing: [i-neuropsychology] ikhono lokuhlukanisa ngokushesha futhi ngokunembile inani elincane lezinto (Kaufman et al., Ukubandlululwa kwenombolo ebonakalayo, 1949).

I-Sulcus glottidis: [ukulimala] ukulimala okubangelwa i-invagianation ye-mucosa yentambo yezwi eyakha i-sac engena endaweni kaReinke. Kukholelwa ukuthi kubangelwa ukuvulwa okuzenzakalelayo kwe-cyst ye-cyerms eminyakeni yokuqala yokuphila (cf. I-Albera neRossi, i-Otolaryngology, 2018: 251).

T

Ithiyori Yomqondo wokuqonda kwe-Multimedia Learning noma i-Cindows: [ukufunda] theory ebikezela ukuba khona kweziteshi ezimbili zokufunda, eyodwa ebonakalayo neyodwa yokuqopha, ngayinye inomkhawulo (izinto ezi-3 noma ezi-4 ngasikhathi). Imininingwane eminingi ehlukile ingacutshungulwa, futhi-ke ifundwe, uma ihlukaniswe kuziteshi zombili (ezibukwayo nezizwakalayo) esikhundleni esiteshini esisodwa (ngokwesibonelo, umbhalo obhaliwe nezithombe); lokhu kubizwa ukusebenza kwemodi.
Uma, ngakolunye uhlangothi, sinikezela ngemininingwane efanayo ngendlela engelutho eziteshini eziningi (ezibukwayo nezizwakalayo) esikhundleni seyodwa (ngokwesibonelo, indawo yokubhala), lo mbono ubikezela ukuwohloka kokusebenza okuxhumene nokulayishwa kwememori esebenzayo; lokhu kubizwa umphumela wokuphindwaphindwa (bheka futhi UMayer noFiorella, Imigomo Yokwehlisa Ukusebenza Okungaphezulu Kokufunda Kwe-Multimedia: Ukubumbana, Ukusayina, Ukuphindaphindeka, Ukuqina Komhlaba, kanye Nezinkambiso Zesikhashana Sokuziphatha, 2014)

Umnotho wethokheni (Uhlelo lokuqinisa amathokheni): [Psychology, behaviour] inqubo yezengqondo equkethe ukudweba "inkontileka" phakathi kwesihloko nomzali noma uthisha wakhe, lapho kusungulwa imithetho khona; Intfo lefanekiswako (noma ithokheni) bese iniketwa ngekutiphatsa ngakunye lokudzingekako kwalemitsetfo, kuyilapho noma ngabe iluphi luphawu luzosuswa noma lunganikezwa uma kwenzeka sekwephulwa okufanayo. Lapho sifinyelela inani elinqunyelwe lamathokheni, lawa azoguqulwa abe yibhonasi okwakuvunyelwene ngayo ngaphambili (bheka futhi I-Vio ne-Spagnoletti, Izingane ezi-Inattentive and Hyperactive: Training Parent, 2013).

V

ubuqiniso: [psychometry] degree lapho ithuluzi elithile (isivivinyo) empeleni lilinganisa ukuguquguquka kwenzalo. Yakhiwa ngokuyinhloko ubuqiniso bokuqukethwe, ukuqinisekiswa kobuqiniso nokwakha ubuqiniso (bona futhi Izibalo zeSayensi yokuZiphatha, iWelkowitz, iCohen ne-Ewen, ka-2009).

Inani lokuqagela elingalungile: [izibalo] okungenzeka kwangemuva kokuhlolwa ukulinganisa ingxenye yezifundo ezikhonjwe kahle njenge non ukuba nesimilo (okungalungile kwangempela) maqondana nenani lalawo ahlukile kuleso sici (ubuthi beqiniso + ubuthi bokungamanga). Isibonelo, ukube besikhona phambi kokuhlolwa ukukhomba izifundo ze-aphasic, inani elingelona ukuqagela okungaba yisilinganiso esiphakathi kwezihloko ezinempilo ezikhonjwe ngokufanele yisivivinyo maqondana nengqikithi yezinempilo ezinempilo kanye ne-aphasic engemihle ekuhlolweni ihlukaniswe ngokungafanele njengenempilo).
Uma sibiza i-VPN inani elingelona ukuqagela okungafanele, Inani eliphelele lezifundo ezinempilo eziphawulwe kahle kanye ne-B ingqikithi yezifundo ze-aphasic ezihlukaniswe ngokungalungile njenge-aphasic lapho singakwazi ukuveza inani elibi lokuqagela ngendlela elandelayo: VPN = A / (A + B).

Inani elifanele lokubikezela: [izibalo] kungenzeka kwangaphambi kokuhlolwa kokulinganisa inani lezifundo ezichazwe kahle njengezinesimilo (izimilo zangempela) maqondana nenani lalawo afanelekile kuleso sici (izimfanelo zangempela + ezingemanga zamanga). Isibonelo, ukube besikhona phambi kokuhlolwa kokuhlonza izikhwama ze-aphasic, inani elifanele lokuqagela bekungaba isilinganiso phakathi kwama-aphasic akhonjwe kahle ukuhlolwa kuqhathaniswa nengqikithi ye-aphasics ne-non-aphasics efanelekile ekuhlolweni ngephutha njenge-aphasic).
Uma sibiza i-VPP inani elifanele lokuqagela, Isibalo sezihloko eziphawulwe kahle ze-aphasic kanye ne-B ingqikithi yezifundo ezinempilo zitholwe ngokungalungile njenge-aphasic singakhombisa inani elifanele lokuqagela ngokulandelayo: VPP = A / (A + B).

I-Cashishing Cows (indlela yokunciphisa iziphakamiso): [I-neuropsychology] inqubo yokubamba ngekhanda egxile ekunciphiseni okuqhubekayo kweziphakamiso eziphathelene nemininingwane okufanele iphindwe, ngemuva kwesigaba sokufunda esifanayo (bona futhi I-Glisky, Schacter ne-Tulving, Ukufunda nokugcinwa kwesilulumagama esihlobene nekhompiyutha ezigulini ezikhubazeke kwimemori: Indlela yokuphelelwa yithemba ngo-1986).

ukuhluka: [isibalo] isilinganiso sokuhluka kwezibalo zepharamitha ezizungeze izinzuzo zazo; kukala ukuthi lawa manani aphambuka kangaki emhlolweni we-arithmetic (bheka futhi I-Vio ne-Spagnoletti, Izingane ezi-Inattentive and Hyperactive: Training Parent, 2013).

vergeture: [izwi] ukudangala komugqa wamahhala wentambo yezwi ngokunamathela kwe-mucosa ku-ligal ye-vocal (cf. I-Albera neRossi, i-Otolaryngology, 2018: 251)

Qala ukuthayipha bese ucindezela u-Enter ukusesha