Isihloko: Ukuguga okusebenzayo: ukuqeqeshwa ukusekela ukusebenza kwengqondo kubantu asebekhulile

Ababhali: URossana De Beni, Michela Zavagnin, Erika Borella

U-Anno: 2020

Umshicileli: Erickson

kwesisekelo

Ukuqeqeshwa kwengqondo, ngokwencazelo, ukungenelela kokuqonda okuqondiswe kubantu asebekhulile, ngenhloso yokwenza ngcono ukusebenza kwansuku zonke. Njengoba kunikezwe ukukhula ukuguga yabantu, okushicilelwa ezincwadini ezikhethekile ngalesi sihloko kuyanda njalo (amaHudes, Rich, Troyer et al., 2019).

Ku-panorama yase-Italy, kushicilelwe izincwadi eziningana ezihloselwe opharetha ukwakha ukungenelela kwe ukukhuthaza kwengqondo umuntu obhekiswe kubantu asebekhulile abanokushoda kwenkumbulo okuzenzakalelayo (u-Andreani Dentici, u-Amoretti noCavallini, 2004) noma kumuntu onesifo sokuwohloka komqondo (eBergamaschi, eIannizzi, eMondini, et al. 2007).

Descrizione

Njengoba kulindelwe isihlokwana, kungukuqeqeshwa okwenzelwe abadala nge ukuguga okujwayelekile o Ukukhubazeka Kokuqonda Okuphakathi (MCI), ezokwenziwa ngamaqembu.


Ngemuva kwengxenye yesingeniso, echaza kafushane ukuthi kuqukethe ini ukuqeqeshwa kwengqondo, sikhombisa ukuthi izinhlobo ezintathu ezihlukene zoqeqesho eziphakanyisiwe kumthamo zakhiwe kanjani: ukuqeqeshwa kwe-metacognitive kanye neqhinga nokuqeqeshwa kwememori yokusebenza. Kukhona nohlobo lwesine oluhlanganisa ezedlule (ezihlanganisiwe).

Ake sizibone kafushane ngamunye ngamunye.

Iyazichaza metocognitive lolo qeqesho olusebenza ezinkolelweni ezihambisana nememori namakhono wokuziqapha. Esikhathini salolu hlobo, ababambiqhaza banikezwa imininingwane ngokuguga kokuqonda komzimba, amasistimu wememori nokuxhumana phakathi kwezinqubo zokuqonda nezingokomzwelo. Umgomo ukwandisa ukuzindla ngezinkolelo zomuntu ngamunye ezingaphansi kokusebenza kwememori nakumasu asetshenziswe ngokuzenzekelayo ukuze abambe ngekhanda lokho okufundwayo, ukuzihlola ngokwabo ukusebenza kwazo.

Kwi ukuqeqeshwa kwamasu ababambiqhaza bazofundiswa amasu okubamba ngekhanda, lawo ngamasu asetshenziswa kancane noma kancane ukuqaphela ukwenza amakhodi ajulile nokukhumbula ngokushesha izinto ezizobanjwa ngekhanda (Gross & Rebok, 2011). Amasu asebenzisekayo angahle abe ngezigaba (ukwenza i-serialization noma ukuhlukaniswa ngezigaba), ukuzihlanganisa nomfanekiso wengqondo (isithombe noma ukubona ngeso lengqondo), noma ukudala izindaba eziqukethe amagama aqondiwe. Ezifundweni eziningi, kusetshenziswa amasu amaningi ngokuhlanganyela, kucatshangwa ukuthi ukuqeqeshwa okuhlanganisa amasu amaningi kungasebenza kakhulu empilweni yansuku zonke (Gross, Parisi, Spira et al., 2012). Ngaphezu kwalokho, ekwenziweni komtholampilo, ukungenelela okubili (okuqondakalayo nokwamasu) kuvame ukusetshenziswa ngokuhlanganyela.

Ekugcineni, ku- ukuqeqeshwa kwememori yokusebenza ababambiqhaza banikezwa ukulandelana kwamazwi (isb. amagama) nezinto ezibonakalayo (isib. izikhundla ku-matrix), ngezikhathi ezichazwe ngaphambilini, ukuvuselelwa kwimemori kusuka kumzuzu nomzuzwana, ngemuva kwalokho kucelwe ukuvuselelwa kwezinhloso ezihambisanayo ngezicelo zomsebenzi (isib. “yiliphi igama lesithathu lokugcina olizwile?”). Imvamisa lokhu kungenelela kuhlongozwa ngezindlela ezingafani, kepha kunokuhlangenwe nakho (iBorella, 2010) okutholwa ngamaqembu. Kuqeqesho oluphakanyiswe kumthamo, ababambiqhaza balalela uhlu lwamagama futhi bacelwa ukuthi bakhiqize impendulo ethile lapho bezwa igama lesikhuthazi esisesigabeni esihlosiwe (ngokwesibonelo, izilwane). Ekupheleni kokwethulwa kohlu kufanele bakhumbule izikhuthazi ezihlosiwe ezinikezwe ngokulandelana okulungile.

Ukuqeqeshwa ngakunye okuphakanyisiwe kumthamo kufaka phakathi amaseshini ama-5. Iseshini ngayinye yandulelwa ukuvivinya umzimba okufushane ukucabanga: ezinhlosweni zabalobi, lesi siphakamiso singaba nemiphumela emihle ekugxileni.

Ivolumu ibuye ifake isandiso esiku-inthanethi, esinamakhadi aphrintekayo nawasikiwe, ukwakha izincwadi zokuzivocavoca ezizolethwa kubahlanganyeli njenge umsebenzi wesikole phakathi kwezikhathi.

ngoba

  • Yincwadi kuphela etholakala ngesiNtaliyane ukuhlinzeka ukuqeqeshwa okuthile kwememori yokusebenza ngenhloso yabantu asebekhulile.
  • Imibhalo ikhombisa ukuthi inhlanganisela yoqeqesho lwamasu kanye nokuqondisisa kusebenza ngempumelelo kangakanani kunokusebenzisa ukuqeqeshwa okukodwa: ngale ndlela ukuqeqeshwa okuhlanganisiwe, njengalokhu okuphakanyiswe encwadini, kungasiza kakhulu kunokuqeqeshwa okukodwa.

Ukuqhathanisa

  • Ukuqeqeshwa ngakunye kwenziwa ngezikhathi ezinhlanu kuphela, inani elibonakala lincane kakhulu ukulindela imiphumela ecacile ngokujwayelekile empilweni yansuku zonke.
  • Ukuqeqeshwa kwamasu kuphakamisa uhlu lwamagama namavesi njengezinto zokwakha. Ukuze ube wusizo olukhulu empilweni yansuku zonke, kungahle kube ukuhlakanipha ukuphakamisa uhlu lwamagama emvelo (ngokwesibonelo, uhlu lokuthenga) bese usebenza kwimemori yokubuka. Siyazi ukuthi ubunzima bokukhunjulwa okuzoba khona buphakathi kwezikhalazo ezivame kakhulu zokuqonda kubantu asebekhulile abajwayelekile (Mc Daniel & Bugg, 2012). Eqinisweni, iphesenti elihle lolwazi wonke umuntu abizelwe ukulibamba ngekhanda nsuku zonke liphathelene nalolu hlobo lwenkumbulo: ngakho-ke kungumsebenzi obaluleke kakhulu futhi onomthelela empilweni yansuku zonke.

iziphetho

Le volumu entsha inikezelwe ekuvuseleleni ukuqonda "Ukuguga okusebenzayo: ukuqeqeshwa ukusekela ukusebenza kwengqondo kubantu asebekhulile”Kungaba wusizo kumvuseleli wokwakha kabusha ukuqeqeshwa okugxile kwimemori yokusebenza kanye / noma ukukhulisa ukusetshenziswa kwamasu okubamba ngekhanda ulwazi empilweni yansuku zonke. Ukuqeqeshwa kuncishisiwe ngezikhathi (ezinhlanu ngohlobo ngalunye) nohlobo lokuzivocavoca, kepha imisebenzi ehlongozwayo ingaba isisekelo esiwusizo sokwakha ukuqeqeshwa okubanzi.

Bibliografia

U-Andreani Dentici, O., Amoretti, G. & Cavallini, E. (2004). Inkumbulo yabantu abadala: umhlahlandlela wokuyigcina isebenza kahle. U-Erickson, uTrento

IBergamaschi, S., Iannizzi, P., Mondini, S. & Mapelli, D. (2007). Ukuwohloka komqondo: Ukuvivinya umzimba okukhuthaza ukuqonda okungu-100. URaffaello Cortina Umshicileli, eMilan.

Borella, E., Carretti, B., Riboldi, F. & De Beni, R. (2010). Ukuqeqeshwa kwememori yokusebenza kubantu abadala asebekhulile: ubufakazi bemiphumela yokudlulisa nokulungisa. I-Psychology nokuguga, 25 (4), 767-778.

UDe Beni, R., Zavagnin, M. & Borella, E. (2020). Ukuguga okusebenzayo: ukuqeqeshwa ukusekela ukusebenza kwengqondo kubantu asebekhulile. U-Erickson, uTrento.

Gross, AL, Parisi, J., M., Spira, AP, Kueoder, A., Ko, JY, Saczynski, JS et al (2012). Ukuqeqeshwa kwememori yabantu abadala asebekhulile: ukuhlaziywa kwe-meta. Ukuguga nempilo yengqondo, 16 (6), 722-734.

I-Gross & Rebok (2011). Ukuqeqeshwa kwenkumbulo nokusetshenziswa kwamasu kubantu abadala asebekhulile: imiphumela evela ocwaningweni olusebenzayo. I-Psychology nokuguga, 26 (3), 503-517.

IHudes, R., Rich, JB, Troyer, AK, Yusupov, I. & Vandermorris, S. (2019). Umthelela wokungenelela koqeqesho lwamasu okukhumbula emiphumeleni ebikiwe yabahlanganyeli kubantu abadala abanempilo: ukubuyekezwa okuhlelekile nokuhlaziywa kwemeta. I-Psychology nokuguga, 34 (4), 587 - 597.

UMc Daniel, MA & Bugg, JM (2012) ukungenelela kokuqeqeshwa kwenkumbulo: yini ekhohliwe?. Ijenali Yokusebenza Ucwaningo kuMemori kanye nokuCognition, 1 (1), 58-60.

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