Ngaphambi kokuthi siqale. Uma uchwepheshe onentshisekelo ekwelapheni i-aphasia, sikulungiselele izifundo ze-asynchronous video "Ukwelashwa kwe-aphasia: amathuluzi asebenzayo" (80 €). Ngaphezulu kwamahora ama-4 ekucubunguleni ngezinto ezilandekayo nokufinyelela kokuphila kokuqukethwe.

Akulula ukusho ukuthi yiluphi ukwelashwa okuzoletha kimi izinzuzo ezinkulu kumuntu one-aphasia. Uzamile ukuphendula umbuzo uYael Neumann (2018) [1]

Ucwaningo

Inhloso yalolu cwaningo ngqo ukucacisa ukuthi ngabe ukwelashwa kwe-phonological ne-semantic kuyayithonya yini imiphumela ngokuhlukile kubantu abanezinhlobo ezahlukene ze-aphasia. Abahlanganyeli bathole Ukuhlaziywa Kwesici Semantic (SFA) neFonological Components Analysis (PCA).

Imiphumela ikhombisile imiphumela ehlukile kusuka kwesineke kuya kwesineke. Phakathi kwezinto ezibonakala zinomthelela emiphumeleni yokwelashwa, imvamisa yokuphambuka, indlela isiguli ngasinye esathola ngayo ukwelashwa, nemikhawulo yesiguli uqobo kubonakala kudlala indima enkulu.


Isampula eliyisithenjwa locwaningo lakhiwa ngabahlanganyeli aba-4 abaneminyaka ephakathi kuka-38 no-60 (abesilisa abathathu nowesifazane ongu-3) ngokusho kwale mibandela elandelayo:

  • Unilateral unhlangothi lwenkabazwe yangakwesobunxele
  • Isikhulumi sendabuko saseMelika
  • Ngithole okungenani idiploma yesikole samabanga aphakeme
  • Ngemuva kokushaywa unhlangothi, ubukhona be-aphasia obunobunzima obumakethi obubonakalayo
  • Ukungabikho kwama-comorbid pathological pathologies athinta isici sokuqonda.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, zombili izindlela, zombili zesemantic nezomlomo, zilinganisiwe maqondana nobunzima nokuhleleka. Kabili ngesonto, imidwebo engama-525 emnyama nemhlophe yamagama ajwayelekile kakhonkolo avela ku-International Picture Naming Project (IPNP) akhonjiswe kumhlanganyeli ngamunye (Szekely 2004 [2]).

Indlela yokukhetha amagama anzima kakhulu esigulini esithile ibisuselwa ezinhlotsheni ezintathu zokusebenza phakathi nezikhathi ezimbili zokuvuselela:

  • Njengoba unikeze impendulo engalungile kabili kulandelana
  • Njengoba uke wanikeza impendulo engalungile nokulungiswa
  • Ukunikeza impendulo engalungile kanye kanye nempendulo eyiyo kanye

Ucwaningo kuhloswe ngalo ukubheka imiphumela yokwelashwa okugxile kwe-semantics kanye ne-phonology ekwelapheni ukunemba kwegama. Imininingwane enikezwe isisekelo ixhunywe kuhlu lwamagama amathathu:

  • Amagama okwelashwa kwe-SFA
  • Amagama okwelashwa kwe-PCA
  • Uhlu lwamagama lokwelashwa alugxilile kuzindlela zangaphambilini (uhlu lokuhlola)

Esigabeni 1, kwaqeqeshwa amagama asohlwini lokuqala kwaqoqwa nemininingwane kuzo zonke izinhlu ezintathu. Esigabeni sesi-2 kwaqeqeshwa amagama asohlwini lwesibili futhi kwaqoqwa nemininingwane kuzo zonke izinhlu ezintathu. Ababambiqhaza babelwa ngezikhathi ezithile ekwelashweni kwe-SFA nePhase 1. PCA Kamuva, abamukeli bezokwelashwa be-SFA bathola ukwelashwa kwe-PCA futhi okuphambene nalokho.

Imiphumela

Imiphumela inayo ukuqinisekisile okutholakele kwangaphambilini maqondana nezinzuzo ezingadonswa kuzo zombili izindlela zokwelashwa kwe-lexical kwabahlanganyeli aba-3 kwabangu-4 abane-anomie emnene ye-lexical, kungakhathalekile ukuthi iyiphi indlela - yefonological noma semantic - esetshenzisiwe.

Lo mphumela ubonakala ungenxa yokugqagqana kwalezi zindlela zombili ukwenza kusebenze womabili amazinga wokucubungula okunezimpawu nokwahluka kwezinhlamvu, ngaphandle kwenhloso yocwaningo ukugxila kuzimpawu ezahlukahlukene zendlela ngayinye. Isiguli esine-grade grade anomaly, noma kunjalo, sikhombise ukuthuthuka kuphela ngendlela yokuqala hhayi ngesesibili. Ngakho-ke, imikhawulo ngenxa yamandla adonsela phansi namandla kubonakala kudlala indima enkulu ekutholeni idatha.

Futhi, kucatshangwa ukuthi nge ngokuqina okwandayo isiguli sesifinyelele umkhawulo waso ukwenza ngcono ekupheleni komjikelezo wokuqala wokwelashwa, ukunciphisa umkhawulo wentuthuko etholakala engxenyeni yesibili yokwelashwa. Idatha yesondlo nayo ibonakala ithonywe i-oda lokwelashwa kanye namamaki wokuthuthuka

Ubufakazi besayensi ekwandiseni konke bukhombise ukusebenza ngempumelelo okukhulu:

  • kulabo abane-aphasia emnene, ngokungafani ne-anomia elinganiselayo
  • ukwelashwa kunikezwa kuqala kuqhathaniswa nokwelashwa okunikezwe okwesibili.

Lokhu kusikisela ukuthi njengoba ubunzima be-anomie bukhuphuka, kulula ukufinyelela kumkhawulo wokugcwala kokwelashwa, ngaleyo ndlela kunciphise amathuba okwenza jikelele nokuthola ukuthuthuka ngemuva kwenkambo yokuqala yokwelashwa, noma ngabe ifonotiki noma isemantic.

Ukulinganiselwa

Ucwaningo lunemikhawulo ethile: okokuqala, isampula lincane futhi njengoba imininingwane ivela ezimweni ezithile, iziphetho zidinga ukwenziwa ngokuqapha. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ababambiqhaza babuthwa ngesisekelo senqubo yokufakwa bodwa, futhi abakahlukaniswanga ngobunzima be-aphasia noma izici ezinhle njengokukhuthaza; lokhu kukhetha kubalwe ukumela ngokunembile inani labantu basemtholampilo, noma ngabe kuholele ekungalingani (izifundo ze-3 ezine-anomia emnene, eyodwa ene-anomia elinganiselayo). Umkhawulo obaluleke kakhulu ubangelwa ukuthi, ngenkathi kwenziwa ucwaningo, iziguli ezintathu kwezine benze eminye imijikelezo yokwelashwa kokukhuluma.

Bibliografia

[1] UNeumann Y. Ukuqhathaniswa kochungechunge lwamacala okugxilwe ngokwezifundo kuqhathaniswa Ukwelashwa kokuqanjwa kwamagama okugxilwe ngokomculo ku-aphasia. UClin Linguist Phon. 2018; 32 (1): 1-27

[2] Ngokufanelekile A, Jacobsen T, D'Amico S, et al. Insiza entsha eku-inthanethi yezifundo ze-psycholinguistic. UJ Mem Lang. 2004;51(2):247-250

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