I-Attic deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ukuphazamiseka kwangaphambi kokuqala kokusebenza kwe-neurodevelopmental okubonakala ngezinkinga zokunaka, ukuqina kwethonya kanye nokungahambi kahle[2].

Obunye bunzima obuvame ukuhambisana nale nkinga buthinta imvelo yesikole: ezinganeni nakubantu abasha abanalesi sifo kutholakala kaningi ukuthola ukusebenza okuphansi. Kusukela kule datha, iqembu labaphenyi[1] wayenesifiso sokuthola izinto ezithile ezinamandla okubikezela ukufunda kwesikole.

Olunye uvivinyo lweqiniso olusetshenziswa kaningi ekuhlolweni kokuxilongwa kwe-ADHD kucatshangwa ukuthi yi-WISC-IV; ukuvivinya kwezinga lobuhlakani elisetshenziswa kabanzi ezindaweni eziningi (ngokwesibonelo ekuhlolweni kwe-neuropsychological for dyslexia okusolwayo) futhi okuthi, ngaphesheya kwengqondo ye-quotient, kunikeze izinkomba ezindaweni ezithize ikakhulukazi okulandelayo: ikhono lokubonisana ngomlomo , amakhono okubonisana okwenziwa Spatial, inkumbulo yokusebenza ngomlomo kanye nesivinini sokusebenza.


Abaphenyi bagxile kwizikolo ezahlukahlukene ezibikezelwe yi-WISC-IV ukuqonda ukuthi iziphi ezizobe zilusizo kakhulu ekubikezeleni ukusebenza kwesikole phambi kwe-ADHD.

Ucwaningo

Iqembu lezingane ezineminyaka ephakathi kuka-8 no-12 (uhhafu otholakala ene-ADHD nengxenye enentuthuko ejwayelekile) lihlolwe ekuqaleni, i-WISC-IV, nezinye izivivinyo ezimele eziphathelene nokufunda kwesikole, isk. ku-KTEA (ukufunda nemathematics).

Inhloso yezitshudeni bekuwukubona ukuthi yiziphi izikolo ze-WISC-IV (ukuhlolwa kobuhlakani) ezihlotshaniswa kakhulu nezimpawu zokuhlolwa kwesikole.

Imiphumela

Un umphumela wokuqalakuhambisana nokulindelwe, bekukulandelayo: izingane ezine-ADHD zazisebenza kancane ezifundweni kunalezo ezikhuliswa ngokujwayelekile.

Un umphumela wesibili okwakuqala kwakuwukuthola kwe-IQ ephansi ku-ADHD. Ngaphambi kokugxumela eziphethweni, kubalulekile ukwethula idatha eyengeziwe: isikolo esiphansi kakhulu ku-WISC-IV sasingakhathazi konke ukukhishwa kodwa sinqunywe yizinkomba ezimbili, i.e.Index Yokuqonda Kwamagama (esingasinciphisela amandla okuveza ukuxoxa ngamazwi) kanye noUkusebenza Kwememori Index; Ngamanye amagama, inani eliphansi kakhulu ku-IQ belingamele ikhono lokucabanga eliphansi kepha beliphathelene nezinto ezithile (amakhono we-visuo-spatial reasonating kanye nejubane lokucubungula, nokho, zazijwayelekile.

Un umphumela wesithathu, mhlawumbe okuthakazelisa ngokwengeziwe, ukuthi ubudlelwano phakathi kokuxilongwa kwe-ADHD kanye nokufinyelelwa ezifundweni kwenziwa kabi yizikolo kuIndex Yokuqonda Kwamagama nase-Ukusebenza Kwememori Index. Ngokuqondile, izikolo kulezi zinkomba ezimbili ze-WISC-IV zichaze cishe i-50% yobudlelwano phakathi kokuxilongwa kwe-ADHD nokuhlolwa kokufunda kwesikole; ikakhulukazi, bekuyinkumbulo yokusebenza ebinesisindo esikhulu kunazo zonke, ichaza ama-30% alobu budlelwano (ngenkathi i-20% ichazwa ngezikolo ezise-Index Yokuqonda Kwamagama).
Ngakho-ke, lapho kuqhathaniswa izingane nentsha ene-ADHD maqondana nokusebenza kwazo ezifundweni, ingxenye ebalulekile yomehluko ingathola ngokunembile kwimemori yokusebenza kanye namakhono okucabanga ngamazwi.

Un umphumela wesine yenzelwe kuphela kwimemori yokusebenza. IyahlukanisaUkusebenza Kwememori Index, Abaphenyi baphenye ukuthi yikuphi ukuklanywa okubumbayo okumbili:Imemori Yezithombe e Ukuhlelwa kabusha Kwezincwadi nezinombolo) kwakubaluleke kakhulu ekulameni ubudlelwano phakathi kokuxilongwa kwe-ADHD kanye nokuphumelela okuphansi kwezemfundo. Imiphumela yabonisa ukuthi kuphela i Ukuhlelwa kabusha Kwezincwadi nezinombolo ubambe iqhaza kulobu budlelwano.

le imiphumela yakamuva thinta izingxenye zokufunda kwesikole:Index Yokuqonda Kwamagama futhi i Ukuhlelwa kabusha Kwezincwadi nezinombolo zombili zibonakala zithinta amakhono okufunda (kusukela kumbono wokubukwa kokukhiqizwa kanye nokuqondwa kokuqonda kombhalo) ngenkathi, maqondana namakhono wezibalo, kulolu cwaningo kuphela izikolo eziku Ukuhlelwa kabusha Kwezincwadi nezinombolo babonakala bechaza ubunzima babafana abane-ADHD ngokuqhathaniswa nalezo ezinentuthuko ejwayelekile.

iziphetho

Imininingwane evela kulolu cwaningo ibonakala isinikeza imininingwane ewusizo kakhulu. Yize kungakhathali ukuhlolwa kwe-neuropsychological, isivivinyo esivamile sokuvivinya eminyakeni yokukhula okunjengokuthi I-WISC-IV isivele ibonakala ikwazi ukusinikeza izinkomba ezithile ezilusizo zengozi phambi kokuxilongwa kwe-ADHD.

Ikakhulu, yehlisa izikolo kuIndex Yokuqonda Kwamagama maningi amathuba okuba ubone ubunzima ekufundeni enganeni ene-ADHD. Ubunzima buzoba nzima ngokwengeziwe lapho ukhona izikolo eziphansi ku- Ukuhlelwa kabusha Kwezincwadi nezinombolo okubonakala kunemiphumela futhi emkhakheni wezibalo, ngaphandle kokuthinta indawo efundwayo.

Bibliografia

  1. ICalub, CA, Rapport, MD, Friedman, LM, & Eckrich, SJ (2019). I-IQ nokuphumelela kwezemfundo ezinganeni ezine-ADHD: Imiphumela ehlukile yemisebenzi ethile yokuqonda. Ijenali ye Psychopathology kanye nokuziphatha kokuziphatha41(4), i-639-651.
  2. AmaNuckols, CC, namaNuckols, CC (2013). I-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (DSM-5). EPhiladelphia: American Psychiatric Association.

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