Njengoba isihloko sendatshana sikhombisa, sesivele sizinikele kulesi sihloko, sobabili sikhuluma ngaso amasu asebenzayo, bobabili bakhuluma nge ama-neuromites namasu angasebenzi. Siphinde sangena ekuhleleni ukwenza lula ukufunda lapho kukhona ukuphazamiseka okuthile (ngokwesibonelo, dyslexia e ukushoda kwememori yokusebenza).
Okuningi ngemininingwane, kubhekiswa kokukodwa ukubuyekeza nguDunlosky nozakwabo[1], sasidwebe i uhlu lwamasu ayi-10 badlulisa ukuhlolwa kocwaningo lwesayensi, abanye basebenza kahle kakhulu kanti abanye abalusizi kangako, bachaza amandla nobuthakathaka babo.
Namuhla sifuna ukuvuselela inkulumo eyaqalwa phambilini futhi sizobuyekeza Izindlela eziyi-6; okunye kwalokhu kuzophindwa uma kuqhathaniswa nendatshana edlule, ezinye sizozibona okokuqala ngqa. Zonke lezi zindlela, ngokusho kokubuyekezwa kwemibhalo esizothembela kuyo nguWeinstein nozakwethu[2], banento eyodwa efanayo: zonke ziyasebenza.

Yiziphi lezi zindlela?

1) UMKHUBA OWABIWE

Ku-cosa consiste
Umbuzo wokuhlehliswa kwezigaba zocwaningo futhi, ngaphezu kwakho konke, ukubuyekeza kunokuzigxilisa esikhathini esisodwa (noma izikhathi ezimbalwa zokuvala). Okuboniwe ukuthi, ngesikhathi esifanayo esichithwa ekubuyekezweni, abantu abenza le misebenzi ngezikhathi ezihlukanisiwe ngokuhamba kwesikhathi bafunda ngokushesha okukhulu, futhi imininingwane ihlala izinzile ngokwengeziwe enkumbulweni.


Izibonelo zokuthi ungayisebenzisa kanjani
Kungaba wusizo ukudala amathuba anikezelwe ekubuyekezeni izihloko ezihlanganiswe emavikini noma ezinyangeni ezedlule. Kodwa-ke, lokhu kungabonakala kunzima ngenxa yesikhathi esilinganiselwe esitholakalayo, kanye nesidingo sokuhlanganisa lonke uhlelo lokufunda; kepha, isikhala sezikhathi zokubuyekeza singafinyelelwa ngaphandle kwenkathazo enkulu kothisha uma othisha bethatha imizuzu embalwa ekilasini ukubuyekeza imininingwane ezifundweni ezedlule.
Enye indlela ingahle ibe ngokunikeza abafundi umthwalo wokuhlelela izibuyekezo ezisatshalaliswa ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Vele, lokhu kuzosebenza kangcono ngabafundi abasezingeni eliphakeme (ngokwesibonelo, amabanga aphezulu aphezulu). Njengoba ukushiya isikhala kudinga ukuhlela kusengaphambili, noma kunjalo, kubalulekile ukuthi uthisha asize abafundi ukuhlela izifundo zabo. Isibonelo, othisha bangaphakamisa ukuthi abafundi bahlele izikhathi zokufunda ngezinsuku ezingashintshana nalezo ezifundwa isifundo esithile ekilasini (isibonelo, ukuhlela izikhathi zokubuyekeza ngoLwesibili nangoLwesine uma isifundo sifundiswa esikoleni. NgoMsombuluko nangoLwesithathu) .

Criticality
Ukubaluleka kokuqala kuthinta ukudideka okungenzeka phakathi kokuhlukaniswa kwezibuyekezo nokwandiswa okulula kwesifundo; le ndlela, empeleni, ibona kuqala ukuthi izigaba zokubuyekeza zihlehliswa ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Yize imiphumela emihle isivele yaziwa ngokuhlukaniswa kwezigaba zokubuyekeza, imiphumela yocwaningo oluhlehlisiwe ayaziwa kahle.
Okubalulekile okwesibili ukuthi abafundi bangazizwa bengakhululekile ngokwenziwa okusatshalalisiwe ngoba kuthathwa njengokunzima kakhulu kunezibuyekezo ezigxile esigabeni esifanayo sokufunda. Lo mbono, ngandlela thile, uhambelana neqiniso ngoba, ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukuhlehlisa ukubuyekezwa ngokuhamba kwesikhathi kwenza ukubuyiswa kwemininingwane kube nzima futhi, ngakolunye uhlangothi, umkhuba wokutadisha obonakalayo usebenza (uyashesha), ngenhla ezimweni lapho isifundo kuhloswe ngaso kuphela ukuphasa isivivinyo. Kodwa-ke, usizo lomkhuba osatshalalisiwe kufanele njalo kubhekwe lapho kubalulekile ukugcina imininingwane kumemori isikhathi eside.

Izici ezisadinga ukucaciswa
Kukhona ukungabi bikho kocwaningo olucubungula imiphumela yokuhlukaniswa kokufundwa kolwazi oluhlukile ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, ukuzama ukuqonda ukuthi ngabe okushiwoyo ngokubuyekezwa kwesikhala nakho kuyiqiniso kuleli cala.
Ngaphandle kosizo olungangabazeki lomkhuba osatshalalisiwe, kufanele kuqondwe ukuthi isigaba sokuzijwayeza esinamandla siyadingeka yini noma siyelulekwa.
Akukaze kucaciswe ngisho nokuthi yisiphi isikhathi esifanele phakathi kwezigaba zokubuyekezwa nokubuyiswa kwemininingwane ukuze kufundiswe kakhulu.

2) UKWENZAI-INTERLEAVED '

Ku-cosa consiste
Le ndlela iqukethe ukubhekana nemibono ehlukene noma izinhlobo zezinkinga ngokulandelana, ngokungafani nendlela ejwayelekile yokubhekana nezinguqulo zenkinga efanayo esifundweni esinikeziwe. Kuhlolwe kaningi ngemibono yokufunda izibalo ne-physics.
Kucatshangelwa ukuthi inzuzo yale nqubo ilele ekuvumeleni abafundi ukuthi bathole ikhono lokukhetha indlela efanele yokuxazulula izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezinkinga kunokufunda nje indlela uqobo hhayi ukuthi bayisebenzisa nini.
Eqinisweni, umkhuba we 'interleaved' nawo usetshenziswe ngempumelelo kwezinye izinhlobo zokuqukethwe kokufunda, ngokwesibonelo, emkhakheni wobuciko kuvumele abafundi ukuthi bafunde kangcono ukuhlanganisa umsebenzi othile nombhali wawo ofanele.

Isibonelo sendlela yokuyisebenzisa
Ingasetshenziswa ngezindlela eziningi. Isibonelo kungaba ukuxuba izinkinga ezibandakanya ukubalwa kwevolumu yokuqina okuqinile (esikhundleni sokwenza izivivinyo eziningi ezilandelanayo ngohlobo olufanayo lokuqina).

Criticality
Ucwaningo lugxile ekushintsheni kokuzivocavoca okuxhunyaniswe komunye nomunye, ngakho-ke, kuyadingeka ukuthi uqaphele ukuthi ungahlanganisi okuqukethwe okuhluke kakhulu komunye nomunye (izifundo kulokhu ziyashoda). Njengoba kulula kubafundi abancane ukuthi baphambanise lolu hlobo lokushintshana okungadingekile (futhi mhlawumbe okungakhiqizi) nokushintshaniswa okuwusizo kakhulu kolwazi oluhlobene, kungangcono kothisha babafundi abasebancane ukuthi bakhe amathuba 'okuzihlanganisa okuhlangene'. 'Emsebenzini wesikole futhi Imibuzo.

Izici ezisadinga ukucaciswa
Ngabe ukubuyela ezihlokweni ezedlule kaningi ngesikhathi sonyaka kuyayeka ukufunda imininingwane emisha? Ulwazi oludala nolusha lungashintshana kanjani? Kunqunywa kanjani ibhalansi phakathi kolwazi oludala nolusha?

3) UMKHUBA WOKUTHOLA / UKUQINISEKISA

Ku-cosa consiste
Ingenye yezindlela eziphumelela kakhulu futhi ezilula ukuzisebenzisa. Kalula nje, kungumbuzo wokukhumbula lokho osekufundwe, kokubili ngokuzihlola nangokuhlola okusemthethweni. Isenzo sokukhumbula imininingwane kusuka enkumbulweni sisiza ukuhlanganisa imininingwane. Lo mkhuba usebenza noma ngabe imininingwane ikhunjulwa ngaphandle kokuyikhuluma. Ukusebenza kahle kwahlolwa futhi ngokuqhathanisa imiphumela nabafundi okwathi esikhundleni sokukhumbula imininingwane esuka enkumbulweni yabo, bahamba bayofunda kabusha imininingwane eyayifundwe phambilini (umkhuba wokubuyisa imemori ukhombise ukuthi ungaphezulu kwemiphumela!).

Isibonelo sendlela yokuyisebenzisa
Indlela elula yokufaka isicelo kungaba ukumema abafundi ukuthi babhale phansi konke abakukhumbulayo ngendaba ethile abayifundile.
Enye indlela elula ukuhlinzeka abafundi ngemibuzo yokuhlola abazoyiphendula ngemuva kokufunda okuthile (okuqhubekayo nasekugcineni isigaba sokufunda) noma ukunikeza iziphakamiso zokukhumbula ulwazi noma ukubacela ukuthi benze amabalazwe omqondo ngale ndaba. imininingwane abayikhumbulayo.

Criticality
Ukusebenza kwale ndlela futhi kuya ngezinga elithile empumelelweni emizameni yokuthola imininingwane kwimemori futhi, ngasikhathi sinye, umsebenzi akumele ube lula kakhulu ukuqinisekisa le mpumelelo. Uma, ngokwesibonelo, umfundi ehlanganisa imininingwane ngokushesha ngemuva kokuyifunda bese eyiphinda, akusikho ukukhumbula okuvela kwimemori yesikhathi eside kepha ukugcinwa okulula kwimemori yokusebenza. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma impumelelo iphansi ngokweqile kuba mancane amathuba okuthi lo mkhuba uzoba wusizo.
Futhi, uma unamamephu emibono edalelwe ukuzinzisa izinkumbulo, kubalulekile ukuthi lokhu kwenziwe ngenhliziyo ngoba ukudala amamephu ngokubheka izinto zokufunda kukhombise ukungasebenzi kahle ekuhlanganiseni ulwazi.
Ekugcineni, kubalulekile ukubheka ukukhathazeka okungasetshenziswa ukusetshenziswa kwezivivinyo; empeleni kwaqokonyiswa ukuthi ukukhathazeka kuyakwazi ukunciphisa izinzuzo zememori zale nqubo (ukungakwazi ukuqeda nya inkinga yokukhathazeka, ukuvumelana okuhle kungaba ukubuza imibuzo umfundi angakwazi ukuyiphendula).

Izici ezisadinga ukucaciswa
Kuhlala kucaciselwa ukuthi yiliphi izinga elilungile lobunzima bemibuzo yokuhlola.

4) UKUCWANGCISWA (UKUCWANGCISWA KWEMIBUZO)

Ku-cosa consiste
Le ndlela iqukethe ukuxhuma imininingwane emisha kulwazi olukhona ngaphambili. Kunezincazelo eziningi maqondana nokusebenza kwayo; kwesinye isikhathi sikhuluma ngokufunda okujulile, ezinye izikhathi zokuhlelwa kabusha kolwazi ngememori.
Ngamafuphi, iqukethe ukuxhumana nomfundi ngokubuza imibuzo ngezihloko ezifundiwe, ngenhloso yokumholela ekuchazeni ukuxhumana okunengqondo phakathi kolwazi olufundile.
Konke lokhu, ngaphezu kokuthanda ukubamba imiqondo ngekhanda, kufaka phakathi ukwanda kwekhono lokwengeza okufundwe kweminye imixholo.

Isibonelo sendlela yokuyisebenzisa
Indlela yokuqala yokufaka isicelo kungaba ukumane umeme umfundi ukuthi ajulise ukufaka ikhodi kulwazi olufundwayo ngokumbuza imibuzo efana nokuthi "kanjani?" noma ngani? ".
Okunye okungenzeka ukuthi abafundi basebenzise le ndlela ngokwabo, ngokwesibonelo, ngokumane basho ngokuzwakalayo ukuthi yiziphi izinyathelo okudingeka bazithathe ukuxazulula isibalo.

Criticality
Lapho usebenzisa le ndlela kubalulekile ukuthi abafundi baqinisekise izimpendulo zabo ngezinto zabo noma nothisha; lapho okuqukethwe okwenziwe ngombuzo wokucubungula kukubi, lokhu kungakhulisa ukufunda.

Izici ezisadinga ukucaciswa
Kungasiza abacwaningi ukuthi bahlole ukuthi kungenzeka yini ukuthi basebenzise le ndlela vele ezigabeni zokuqala zokufunda imiqondo okufanele ifundwe.
Kusazobonwa ukuthi abafundi basebenzisa imibuzo abazenzele yona yini noma kungcono ukuthi imibuzo elandelayo ibuzwe ngomunye umuntu (isibonelo, uthisha).
Akucaci nokuthi umfundi kufanele aphikelele kangakanani ekufuneni impendulo noma yiliphi izinga elifanele lamakhono nolwazi alutholile ukuze akwazi ukuzuza kulolu hlelo.
Ukungabaza kokugcina kuphathelene nokusebenza kahle: ukuphatha le ndlela kudinga ukwanda ezikhathini zokufunda; ingabe kunenzuzo ngokwanele noma ingabe kulula kakhulu ukuthembela kwamanye amasu, ngokwesibonelo, umkhuba wokuqinisekisa (ngokwakho)?

5) IZIBONELO ZE-CONCRETE

Ku-cosa consiste
Le ndlela ayidingi izingeniso ezinkulu. Umbuzo wokuhlanganisa izibonelo ezisebenzayo nezincazelo zemfundiso.
Ukusebenza ngempumelelo akubuzwa futhi kusekelwe eqinisweni lokuthi imiqondo engaqondakali kunzima ukuyiqonda kunaleyo ephathekayo.

Isibonelo sendlela yokuyisebenzisa
Akukho okuningi okuqondayo ngale ndlela; akumangazi ukuthi ababhali besibuyekezo esithatha kulo lolu lwazi[2] khomba le ndlela njengaleyo ekhonjwe kakhulu ezincwadini zokuqeqesha othisha (okungukuthi kumacala angama-25%).
Kodwa-ke, kungasiza ukwazi ukuthi ukwenza abafundi bachaze ngenkuthalo ukuthi izibonelo ezimbili zibukeka kanjani, futhi ukubakhuthaza ukuthi bakhiphe imininingwane esemqoka eyisisekelo ngokwabo nakho kungasiza ekwandiseni okwakamuva.
Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukunikeza izibonelo eziningi ezifanayo kubonakala kukhulisa inzuzo yale ndlela.

Criticality
Kukhonjisiwe ukuthi ukuchaza umqondo nokukhombisa isibonelo esingahambelani kuthambekele ekufundeni kabanzi ngesibonelo esisebenzayo (esingalungile!). Ngakho-ke kuyadingeka ukunaka kakhulu izinhlobo zezibonelo ezinikezwa maqondana nolwazi esifuna ukulufunda; ngakho-ke izibonelo kumele zihlobane kahle nokuqukethwe okubalulekile.
Ithuba lokuthi isibonelo sizosetshenziswa kahle, okungukuthi, ukukhipha umthetho ojwayelekile, lihlobene nezinga lokuphathwa kwesihloko somfundi. Abafundi abanolwazi oluningi bazojwayela ukudlulela emiqondweni eyisihluthulelo kalula, abafundi abanolwazi oluncane bazovama ukuhlala ngaphezulu ebusweni.

Izici ezisadinga ukucaciswa
Ubuningi bezibonelo ezivumela ukwenziwa kwemiqondo okufanele ifundwe kusamele kuchazwe.
Futhi akucaci ukuthi ibhalansi elungile iphakathi kwezinga lokukhishwa kanye nezinga lokuqina okufanele libe nalo isibonelo (uma singaqondakali, mhlawumbe kunzima kakhulu ukusiqonda; uma sikhonkolo kakhulu, kungahle kungasizi ngokwanele ukudlulisa umqondo ofuna ukufundisa).

6) IKHODI EBILI

Ku-cosa consiste
Kukangaki sizwa “isithombe sinenani lamagama ayinkulungwane”? Lokhu ukucabanga lapho le ndlela isuselwa khona. Ngokuqondile, ithiyori yokufaka amakhodi kabili iphakamisa ukuthi ukuhlinzeka ngezethulo eziningi zolwazi olufanayo kuthuthukisa ukufunda nenkumbulo, futhi lolo lwazi oluveza kalula izethulo ezengeziwe (ngezinqubo ezizenzakalelayo zezithombe) zithola inzuzo efanayo.

Isibonelo sendlela yokuyisebenzisa
Isibonelo esilula kunazo zonke kungaba ukuhlinzeka ngohlelo olubonakalayo lolwazi oluzofundwa (njengokumelwa kweseli elichazwa ngumbhalo). Le ndlela ingasetshenziswa futhi ngokwenza ukuba umfundi adwebe akufundayo.

Criticality
Njengoba izithombe zikhunjulwa kangcono kunamazwi, kubalulekile ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izithombe ezinjalo ezinikezwa abafundi ziyasiza futhi zihambisana nokuqukethwe okulindeleke ukuthi bakufunde.
Ukunakekelwa kufanele kuthathwe lapho kukhethwa izithombe eceleni kombhalo njengoba imininingwane ebonakalayo ngokweqile kwesinye isikhathi ingaba yisiphazamiso futhi ivimbe ukufunda.
Kubalulekile ukuthi kucace ukuthi le ndlela ayihambelani kahle nombono wokuthi "izitayela zokufunda" (okuye kwavela ukuthi azilungile); akuwona umbuzo wokuvumela umfundi akhethe indlela yokufunda ayithandayo (isibonelo, visual o ngomlomo) kepha ukuze imininingwane idlule eziteshini eziningi ngasikhathi sinye (isibonelo, visual e ngomlomo, ngasikhathi sinye).

Izici ezisadinga ukucaciswa
Kuningi okusamele kuqondwe ngokusetshenziswa kwamakhodi amabili, futhi kudingeka olunye ucwaningo ukucacisa ukuthi othisha bangazisebenzisa kanjani izinzuzo zezethulo eziningi nokuphakama kwesithombe.

ISIPHETHO

Esimweni sesikole, sinamathuba amaningi wokusebenzisa amasu achazwe nje futhi ukuwahlanganisa. Isibonelo, umkhuba osatshalalisiwe ungaba namandla kakhulu ekufundeni uma uhlanganiswa nomkhuba wokuzihlola (ukubuyisa kwimemori). Izinzuzo ezingeziwe zomkhuba osatshalalisiwe zingatholwa ngokuzihlola ngokwakho kaningi, ngokwesibonelo, ukusebenzisa ukuhlolwa ukugcwalisa izikhala phakathi kokuphumula.

Ukwenza okuhlanganisiwe kusobala ukuthi kuhilela ukusatshalaliswa kwezibuyekezo (umkhuba osatshalalisiwe) uma abafundi beshintsha izinto ezindala nezintsha. Izibonelo eziphathekayo zingaba zombili ezokukhuluma nezokubukwa, ngaleyo ndlela kusetshenziswe ukufaka amakhodi kabili. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amasu okucubungula, izibonelo zikakhonkolo, nokufaka amakhodi kabili konke kusebenza kahle uma kusetshenziswa njengengxenye yomkhuba wokubuyisa (ukuzihlola).

Kodwa-ke, akukakatholakali ukuthi izinzuzo zokuhlanganisa lezi zindlela zokufunda ziyangezwa, ziyaphindaphindeka noma, kwezinye izimo, azihambelani. Ngakho-ke kuyadingeka ukuthi ucwaningo lwesikhathi esizayo luchaze kangcono isu ngalinye (ikakhulukazi lokucubungula nokufaka amakhodi kabili), likhombe izindlela ezihamba phambili zokufaka isicelo esikoleni, licacise imibandela yemingcele yecebo ngalinye futhi lingene ekuxhumaneni phakathi kwalezi zindlela eziyisithupha esizixoxe lapha .

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