Ukuhlolwa okuningi kokuqamba amagama nokulandisa [1] kusebenzisa izithombe ukusekela ukukhiqiza ukukhiqizwa kwamagama nemisho. Olunye uvivinyo lusebenzisa izinto ezibonakalayo. Kungani? Imibono evunyelwe kakhulu ekusetshenzisweni kolimi iyavuma ngokuba khona kwesikhungo esisodwa semantic (empeleni bekungeke kube nezomnotho ukucabanga ukuthi kunesikhungo semantic sezithombe esizibonayo nesinye samagama esiwezwayo), kepha ngasikhathi sinye abakholelwa ukuthi iziteshi ezahlukahlukene zokufaka zifinyelela kuzo ngokufanayo lula.

 

Kwabanye kungabonakala kungasho lutho, ngokwesibonelo, ukuthi isithombe sesando singaqinisekisa ukufinyelela ngokushesha kuzici zesando kunegama elithi "isando" (lesi sakamuva, njengawo wonke amagama olimini lwethu, ngokusobala); kodwa-ke, singaholelwa ekucabangeni ukuthi womabili umfanekiso wesando negama elithi "isando" bangonkulunkulu nje amaphuzu okufinyelela kumqondo wesando, ngakho-ke ngaphandle kwesiteshi, izici ze-semantic zisebenza kuphela ngombono wesando. Olunye ucwaningo, kufaka phakathi olomlando wasePotter kusuka ngonyaka we-1975 [2] lukhombisile ukuthi lokhu akunjalo, futhi bakwenze lokho ngokukhombisa izikhathi ezahlukahlukene zokuqamba amagama kuye ngesiteshi esihlukile esisetshenzisiwe.

 

Uma, empeleni, kusuka onyakeni wesibili wesikole samabanga aphansi kuqhubeke, ukufundwa kwegama kushesha ukwedlula ukuqanjwa kwesithombe salo, kuyiqiniso futhi ukuthi ukunikezwa kwento (ngokwesibonelo, itafula) esigabeni, kuyinto kushesha ngokwengeziwe lapho into yethulwa njengesithombe hhayi njengegama elilotshiwe. Ababhali abaningi bakhuluma ngalo mqondo we ukufinyelela okunelungelo (ukuxhumana okuqondile phakathi kwesikhuthazo nencazelo) e ubuhlobo obunelungelo (ukuxhumana phakathi kwezakhiwo zesikhuthazo nezakhiwo ze-semantic ezixhunywe esenzweni sazo) sezinto - nezithombe - maqondana nezici ze-semantic.


 

Yikuphi ukufinyelela okuyilungelo esinobufakazi obuningi kukho?

  1. Izinto zinelungelo lokufinyelela kwimemori ye-semantic maqondana namagama [2]
  2. Amagama anokuthola ilungelo lokuthola izici zezwi uma kuqhathaniswa nezithombe [2]
  3. Ikakhulu, phakathi kwazo zonke izici zesemantic, izinto zinelungelo lokufinyelela esenzweni esizokwenziwa [3]

 

Eminyakeni yakamuva, ngokuvela kwe- imibono "ehlanganiswe" (bona, phakathi kokunye, iDamasio) ukuhlolwa okwenziwe kabusha okwengeziwe kwenziwe ukwenziwa kwe-semantic okuhlobene nezinto esizisebenzisayo. Ocwaningweni lwakamuva [4] abantu bacelwe ukuthi baphendule (ngokuhambisa isigwedlo phambili noma emuva) ngemuva kokubuka izithombe, banquma ukuthi:

  • Isilingo A: into isetshenziselwe umzimba (isb: isixubho) noma kude nayo (isb: isando)
  • Isilingo B: Le nto yenziwe ngesandla noma ibiyimvelo

 

Ababhali baya kobheka umphumela wokuhlangana, noma uma ababambiqhaza beshesha ukuphendula lapho kunokuhlangana phakathi kohlobo lwento nokunyakaza kwesigwedlo (isb. isixubho samazinyo, noma into engizoyisebenzisa kimi - ilever phansi). Uma, esimweni sokuqala, ukuba khona komphumela wokuhlangana kwakucishe kuthathwe kalula, kwakuthakazelisa ukuqaphela ukuthi, ngisho nasekulingweni B, lapho umbuzo wawungahlangene nokusetshenziswa kwakho noma kude nawe, umphumela wokuhlangana ingabe kwenzeke noma kunjalo. Ngomqondo othile, isithombe sento "senza kusebenze" isenzo ngendlela esile ngisho noma umbuzo esiwubuziwe ungahlobene nokusetshenziswa kwawo.

 

Ukufinyelela okuyilungelo, ngakho-ke, kubonakala kuyisimo esingakhathazi kuphela izici ezibonakalayo zento, kodwa futhi nomzimba wethu nangendlela esixhumana ngayo nayo.

Bibliografia

 

[1] U-Andrea Marini, uSara Andreetta, uSilvana del Tin & Sergio Carlomagno (2011), Indlela yamazinga amaningi ekuhlaziyweni kolimi lokulandisa ku-aphasia, Aphasiology, 25:11,

 

[2] UMbumbi, uMC, uFaulconer, uB (1975). Isikhathi sokuqonda izithombe namagama.Nature,253, 437-438.

 

[3] I-Chainay, H., Humphreys, GW Ukufinyelela okulingene kwesenzo sezinto ezihlobene namagama. I-Psychonomic Bulletin nokubuyekeza 9, 348-355 (2002). 

 

[4] I-Scotto di Tella G, i-Ruotolo F, i-Ruggiero G, i-Iachini T, i-Bartolo A. Ngakude futhi kude nomzimba: Ukubaluleka kokuqondiswa kokusetshenziswa ekufakweni kwezenzo ezihlobene nento. I-Quarterly Journal ye-Therapy Psychology. 2021;74(7):1225-1233.

 

 

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