Ukuthi i-ADHD ihambisana nokushoda okuhlukahlukene kwe-neuropsychological yaziwa kahle. Ikakhulu, izinqubo ezahlukahlukene zokuqonda ezihlobene nemisebenzi ephezulu zivame ukuguqulwa, njengokuvinjwa kokuphendula, ukuguquguquka kwengqondo, ukuhlela, ukuphaphama nememori yokusebenza[4][8] (bheka futhi iukuvela kwephrofayili yokuqonda e-ADHD).

Kubantu abadala abane-ADHD, ukushiyeka ekusebenzeni okuphezulu kungenzeka empilweni yansuku zonke ngezinqumo eziphoqayo, ukubekezelela okungahambi kahle ekukhungathekeni, ubunzima ekuphathweni kwesikhathi (ngokwesibonelo, ukufika sekwedlule isikhathi nokuba nolwazi olungelona lwesikhathi), amandla okuphatha nokuzikhuthaza, ikhono elibi lokuhlela nokuhlela imisebenzi yomuntu[3].

Ababhali bocwaningo esifuna ukukutshela ngalo[3] zibonisa ukuthi ubunzima bokugcina obungahle buxhunyiwe buxhunyaniswe okungenani okuyingxenye nobunye ubuqili obufundwe ngokungafanele ku-ADHD: inkumbulo yokubuka. Lo mqondo ubhekisa kunamandla okwenza ngokulandela inhloso ehlelelwe isikhashana esizayo[3] (imemori yokubuka esekwe ngesikhathi), ngokuzayo komcimbi othize (inkumbulo engaba khona esekelwe kumcimbi) noma ngemuva kokuqeda umsebenzi (inkumbulo esekwe emisebenzini).
Ezinye izibonelo zememori engaba khona kungaba ukukhumbula ukuya ukuqokwa kwadokotela ngo-16:00 noma ukuthatha umuthi ngaphambi kokudla kwasekuseni (bheka futhi i-athikili yethu inkumbulo engaba khona ku-sclerosis eminingi kuqhubeke ukuvuselelwa kwememori yokubuka).


Imemori elindelekile inezigaba eziningana nezinqubo[3]: okokuqala, ainhloso nesikhathi esizokwenzeka kumele sihlelelwe; ngokuhamba kwesikhathi kuzofanela inhloso egcinwe kwimemori ebuyayo futhi uhlale usebenza ngenkathi wenza eminye imisebenzi; ekugcineni, lapho kufaneleka ukwenza ukhonkolo wenhloso kuzodingeka ekuvimbeleni ezinye izinto ezenziwayo ngenhloso shintsha imisebenzi kalula, ngaleyo ndlela eqala ukwenza lokho obekuhlelelwe lowo mzuzu.

Uma kunikezwe lokho esisanda kuxoxwa ngakho, kubonakala kusobala ukuthi umqondo wenkumbulo yokubuka ubandakanya inkumbulo yesikhathi eside (yokubuyisela emuva) futhi ngezinga elikhulu imisebenzi ephezulu.
Ngokuhambisana nokushiyeka kokusebenza okuphezulu okwaziwa kakade ku-ADHD, kuyabonakala futhi kulo mongo ukuguqulwa kwememori yokubuka[7], kanye ne ukuthambekela kokuhlehlisa[6]. Ngaphandle kwalokhu, akekho noyedwa owayesaphenya ukuxhumana okungenzeka phakathi kwalezi zimpawu ezimbili.

umbono[3] ukuthi ukuhlehlisa kungaphumela ekuthini ukuqagela okungenampilo kuqalwe esikhathini esizayo (ukuqondisela ikusasa) kanye nobunzima bokuyicabanga (ukucabanga kwesikhathi esizayo). Abantu abavame ukuhlehlisa izinto bangathambekela kakhulu kulokhu okukhona futhi bangaba nobunzima obukhulu bokucabanga ngezimo ezizayo[4]. Eqinisweni, kuphakanyisiwe ukuthi amandla okucabanga ngekusasa angaba nokuxhumana nokwakheka kwezinhloso, isigaba esiyisisekelo sokusebenza okuyikho kwememori ezayo[1].

Kusukela kulezi zakhiwo u-Altgassen nozakwabo[3] bathuthukise ucwaningo ngenhloso phenya ukuba khona kokushoda kwememori okungenzeka ku-ADHD empilweni yangempela futhi uqhathanise ukusebenza kwabo nalaba ukuhlolwa kwememori engaba khona elabhorethri, hlola ukuxhumana okungahle kube khona phakathi kokuthambekela kokuthambekela kanye nokulinganiselwa okubi kwesikhathi esizayo, futhi uqonde uma okungenani ingxenye ubudlelwane besizathu phakathi kwe-ADHD nokuthambekela kokuhlehlisa kungaba exhumene nokushoda kwememori yokubuka.

Ucwaningo

ababhali bocwaningo[3] bakhetha amaqembu amabili ezifundo zabantu abadala, elinye lalihlanganisa abantu abangama-29 abane-ADHD kanti elinye lalinabantu abangama-29 abakhula ngokujwayelekile. Bonke bahlolwe izivivinyo imemori ye-episodic esheshayo nephuze, umsebenzi wesikole we inkumbulo engaba khona elabhorethri nomsebenzi wesikole inkumbulo yokubuka empilweni yansuku zonke; baphinde bagcwalisa uhlu lwemibuzo ku ukuthambekela kokuhlehlisa empilweni yansuku zonke kanye nohlu lwemibuzo lokuphenya i ukuthambekela kokuqokwa esikhathini esizayo.

Imiphumela

Imininingwane yocwaningo ikhombisa imiphumela eminingana ethokozisayo:

  • The ukwahlukaniswa phakathi kokusebenza kwememori okungenzeka kulabhorethri kanye nasempilweni yangempela: ngenkathi kufundiswa nge-ADHD kwakungekho kusilela ekuhlolweni kwenkumbulo yeLabhorathri, empilweni yansuku zonke ubunzima bezinkumbulo obezicacile bucace kakhulu kunakwabadala abakhula ngokujwayelekile.
  • Ukuxhumana kutholakele phakathi ikhono lokukhumbula izinhloso zomuntu empilweni yansuku zonke e Ukuhlolwa kwenkumbulo ye-episodic Defended elabhorethri (kuyahambisana nokubaluleka kokusebenza okuyikho kwememori ye-episodic yokusebenza kahle kwememori yokubuka).
  • Izimpawu ze-ADHD zazihlobene neyodwa amandla amancane okukhumbula izinhloso zomuntu kumenyezelwe ngaphambilini.
  • Abantu abane-ADHD babike okukodwa ukuthambekela kokuhlehlisa ephakeme kakhulu kunaleyo yentuthuko ejwayelekile.
  • Eqenjini eline-ADHD kutholakele ukuqondiswa okuncane ngokuqonde esikhathini esizayo.
  • La ukuthambekela kokuhlehlisa yayihlobene kakhulu ne inani lezenzo ezihleliwe zenziwa ngempela, ngobukhali be-AdHD kanye nokuzilolonga ngekusasa.
  • Ubudlelwano phakathi Izimpawu ze-ADHD e ukuthambekela kokuhlehlisa yayihlanganyelwe ngokwengxenye ngu umbono wokushoda kwememori (ukushintshwa kwememori engaba khona kungahle kube nomthelela ekuziphatheni kokuzibophezela kwabantu abane-ADHD).

iziphetho

Ihlanganiswe ndawonye, ​​le mininingwane iholela ekubonisweni okuhlukahlukene, ngokuyinhloko ku-ukusetshenziswa nokutolika kwezivivinyo ekusebenzeni kwemitholampilo ku-ADHD: ezweni lethu kukhona ukushoda kwezivivinyo zokuhlola inkumbulo engaba khona futhi lokhu kungadala izinkinga ezinkulu ekubumbeni kahle ubunzima ubunzima abantu abane-ADHD abangahlangabezana nabo empilweni yansuku zonke; ngaphezu kwalokho, lolu cwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi ukuhlolwa kwelabhoratri (okuqhathaniswa nokuhlolwa kwe-neuropsychological okulungiselelwe endaweni yokulungiswa komtholampilo) kungenzeka kunganele ukubamba ubunzima bangempela ezimeni zangempela, okuholela ngisho nangokwengeziwe engcupheni yokunciphisa amandla umthelela wokushoda ku impilo yansuku zonke.
Iqiniso lokuthi kubantu abane-ADHD kunenkambiso enkulu yokuhlehlisa futhi ukuthambekela okuncane ngokuzayo kukhombisa ukuxhumana okungenzeka kwesizathu phakathi kwalezi zici ezimbili, okuthi, kuhlanganiswe nokuthi kungenzeka ukuthi umkhuba wokuhlehlisa ukuzibophezela uqondaniswe nokushoda kwememori engaba khona, kusenze sicabange izindawo zokungenelela ezizayo[1][2]; ngokwesibonelo, kucatshangelwa ukuthi ukungenelela ekujuleni kokuya esikhathini esizayo nasekhonweni lokucabanga kungathuthukisa umthamo wememori olindelekile bese kunciphisa ukuthambekela kokuhlehlisa abantu abane-ADHD (hhayi kuphela).

Kodwa-ke, kufanele kubhekwe ukuthi lena ucwaningo lokuhambelana futhi ngenxa yalokho kungakhombisa ubudlelwano obukhona phakathi kokuguquguqukayo; Ngakho-ke kuyadingeka ukuthi kwenziwe ucwaningo olwengeziwe oluqhakambisa ukuxhumana okungahle kube khona phakathi kwezinto eziguquguqukayo (izici eziqondakalayo) ezibhekwe kulolu cwaningo.

Bibliografia

  1. I-Altgassen, M., Rendell, PG, Bernhard, A., Henry, JD, Bailey, PE, Phillips, LH, & Kliegel, M. (2015). Ukucabanga kwesikhathi esizayo kuthuthukisa ukusebenza kwenkumbulo okulindelekile nokuhlela ukwenziwa kwabantu abadala. I-Quarterly Journal ye-Experimental Psychology, 68(1), i-192-204.
  2. I-Altgassen, M., Kretschmer, A., & Schnitzspahn, KM (2017). Imiyalo yokucabanga yesikhathi esizayo ithuthukisa ukusebenza kwenkumbulo okulindelekile ebusheni. I-Neuropsychology yengane, 23(5), i-536-553.
  3. I-Altgassen, M., Scheres, A., & Edel, MA (2019). Imemori elindelekile (ngokwengxenye) ixhumanisa ukuxhumana phakathi kwezimpawu ze-ADHD nokuhlehlisa izinto. I-ADHD Attention Deficit kanye nokuphazamiseka kwe-Hyperacaction, 11(1), i-59-71.
  4. UCorbett, BA, uConstantine, uLJ, uHendren, R., uRocke, D., no-Ozonoff, S. (2009). Ukuhlola ukusebenza okuphezulu ezinganeni ezine-autism spectrum disorder, ukunakekelwa kokushoda kokungasebenzi kahle nokukhula okujwayelekile. Ucwaningo lwezengqondo, 166(2-3), i-210-222.
  5. I-Rebetez, MML, i-Barsics, C., Rochat, L., D'Argembeau, A., & Van der Linden, M. (2016). Ukuhlehlisa izinto, ukucabangela imiphumela yesikhathi esizayo, nokucabanga kwesikhathi esizayo. Ukwaziwa nokuqonda, 42, I-286-292.
  6. Insimbi, P. (2007). Uhlobo lokuhlehlisa: Ukubuyekezwa kwe-meta-analytic kanye nethiyori yokwehluleka kokuzibamba okwenziwe ngokwezifiso. Imibiko yezengqondo, 133(1), i-65.
  7. I-Talbot, KDS, Müller, U., & Kerns, KA (2018). Inkumbulo elindelekile ezinganeni ezinenkinga yokushoda kokungasebenzi kahle kwengqondo: ukubuyekeza. I-Clinical Neuropsychologist, 32(5), i-783-815.
  8. I-Willcutt, EG, Doyle, AE, Nigg, JT, Faraone, SV, & Pennington, BF (2005). Ukusebenza kwe-theory function theory of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder: ukubuyekezwa kwe-meta-analytic. Ukusebenza kwengqondo kwengqondo, 57(11), i-1336-1346.

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