Ukuhlolwa kwezinga lobuhlakani manje sekungene ekwenziweni kwemitholampilo eminyakeni yokukhula, ikakhulukazi lapho ukuhlolwa kwengane noma kwentsha kuthinta izici zokuqonda.

Isibonelo esijwayelekile yileso sezinkinga ezithile zokufunda: ukuhlolwa kokuxilongwa kufaka phakathi, phakathi kwezinye izindlela, ukukhishwa ekubeni khona kokushoda kwengqondo; ngale njongo, lo mkhuba ubona kusetshenziswa izivivinyo ze- IQ (IQ), imvamisa imininingwane eminingi njenge-WISC-IV. Lokhu kuhlolwa kususelwa kumodeli ebizwa nge-CHC ukukala amakhono wokuqonda kuvinjelwe e enkulu.

Imodeli ye-CHC ibona izingqimba ezi-3 zokulandelana: phezulu kunesici esingu-g, esingabhekisa kuso lapho sikhuluma ngobuhlakani bomhlaba wonke bomuntu, lowo okungenzeka ukuthi kufanele uvele esilinganisweni se QI; ezingeni eliphakathi nendawo kufanele kube khona okunye izici ezijwayelekile kepha ezisabanzi (ngokwesibonelo, ubuhlakani be-fluid, ubuhlakani obufihliwe, Theyokufunda futhi i ukubona okubukwayo); ezingeni eliphansi kakhulu kufanele kube namakhono athile (isib. ukuskena kwendawo, ukufaka amakhodi wefonetiki).


I-WISC-IV, njengezinye izivivinyo, igxila kakhulu kuzingqimba ezimbili eziphakeme kakhulu: i-g-factor (yingakho i-IQ) nezinto ezinwetshiwe zesendlalelo sesibili (ngokwesibonelo, ukuqonda ngomlomoit ukucabanga okubukwayo, lo inkumbulo yokusebenza futhi i isivinini sokusebenza).

Noma kunjalo, ezimweni eziningi i-IQ ayibonakali ingahumusheka ngenxa yokungafani okukhulu phakathi kwezikolo ezahlukahlukene ezitholwe ngaphakathi kwe-WISC-IV; lokhu kwenzeka ngezifo ezithile zokufunda (i-SLD): ngokusho kokunye ukulinganisela, ku-50% iphrofayli yengqondo izobonisa ukungafani okwenza i-IQ inombolo engenamqondo. Kulezi zimo, izazi zokusebenza kwengqondo ezenza lolu hlobo lokuhlola zivame ukugxila kakhulu ezicini zesendlalelo sesibili, zihlaziya amandla nobuthakathaka.

Kuyo yonke le nkulumo, ezinye izici zivame ukunganakwa:

  • Lingakanani izinga lengqondo (QIemhlabeni jikelele kuhlotshaniswa nobunzima bezemfundo?
  • Ngakanani i izici zesendlalelo sesibili, okuvame ukukalwa ngokuhlolwa kwe-IQ enezinto eziningi ukubikezela ukuphumelela ezifundweni?

Ngo-2018, uZaboski[1] nozakwabo bazama ukuphendula lo mbuzo ngokubukeza ucwaningo olushicilelwe ngalesi sihloko kusuka ngo-1988 kuya ku-2015. Ngokuqondile, babheka izifundo lapho izinga lokuqonda lahlolwa khona ngezikali eziningi ukuze i-IQ nabanye izici bezihlobene nokufunda esikoleni. Ikakhulu, ngaphezu kwe QI, kukhethwe ucwaningo olucubungulile ukucabanga oketshezi, ulwazi oluvamile (esingabuye sibhekise kuyo njengo- ubuhlakani obufihliwe), inkumbulo yesikhathi eside, ukucubungula okubukwayo, ukucubungula kokuzwa, inkumbulo yesikhashana, isivinini sokusebenza.

Yini abacwaningi abayitholile?

Amakhono amaningi anwetshiwe azokwazi ukuchaza ngaphansi kuka-10% wempumelelo yezifundo e angadluli ku-20%, noma ngabe kubhekwa iminyaka emingaki (esikhathini esithile esukela eminyakeni eyisithupha kuya kwengu-6). Esikhundleni salokho, i-IQ izocacisa ngokwesilinganiso sama-54% empumelelo yezifundo (kusuka kokungenani okungama-41% wokufunda uneminyaka eyi-6-8, kuze kufike kuma-60% wamakhono ayisisekelo wezibalo, futhi futhi eneminyaka engu-6-8).

Phakathi kwamakhono anwetshiwe, i-ulwazi oluvamile kubonakala sengathi yiyona ehlobene kakhulu nokufunda okuthile kwesikole, ikakhulukazi emakhono okufunda nokuqonda umbhalo; ezimweni zombili ukwehluka okuchaziwe kungama-20%.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kuyathakazelisa ukuqaphela ukuhlangana okungekuhle phakathi kwe- ukucabanga oketshezi futhi cishe konke ukufunda esikoleni kuhlolwe kulokhu kuhlaziywa kwemeta. Okuwukuphela kokungafani ngamakhono ayisisekelo wezibalo eqenjini leminyaka eyi-9-13 (kuchazwe ukuhlukahluka okungu-11%) namakhono wokuxazulula izinkinga eqenjini leminyaka eli-14-19 (kuchazwe ukuhlukahluka okungu-11%).

Le datha idinga ukucatshangelwa ekusetshenzisweni kokuhlolwa kwe-monocomponential njengama-Raven's Progressive Matrices (namanje namuhla asetshenziswa njengokuhlolwa kuphela kokuqonda ekuhloleni okuningi kokuxilonga) okugxilwe kuphela ekucabangeni okusamanzi.

Ubukhona obucishe bukhethe i ubudlelwane obuthakathaka phakathi kwamakhono anwetshiwe wemodeli ye-CHC nokufunda esikoleni, kuphakamisa ukuqaphela ekutolikeni nasekwenzeni izibikezelo ngokuya ngalezi zinkomba (ngokwesibonelo, ekusebenzeni kwezemfundo noma ebukhoneni bokukhubazeka kokufunda).

Ngokufingqa, ngokuya ngemininingwane yalolu cwaningo, amaphuzu aphelele ezikali zemiklamo eminingi, okusho ukuthi i-IQ, abonakala kungukuphela kwedatha exhunywe ngokuqinile ekusebenzeni kwezemfundo.

Qala ukuthayipha bese ucindezela u-Enter ukusesha

iphutha: Okuqukethwe evikelwe !!