Sesivele sibhale okuningi esikhathini esedlule mayelana imisebenzi ephezulu futhi of intelligence; Othile ngokuqinisekile uzobona ukuthi akunakwenzeka ukudweba imingcele ecacile ezincazelweni zokwakhiwa ngakunye kwalaba ababili kuze kube seqophelweni lokuthola ukufana okubalulekile.

Ukuchaza imisebenzi ephezulu singasho ukuthi kuyizinhlobonhlobo zamakhono okuqonda ahlobene asukela ekhonweni elilula lokuqala ngokuzithandela isenzo futhi avimbele izindlela ezithile zokuziphatha kuze kufike ukuhlela complex, kumthamo we ukuxazululwa kwenkinga futhi konkeumuzwa[1]. Imiqondo yokuhlela, ukuxazululwa kwenkinga futhi umuzwa, noma kunjalo, ngokungenakugwenywa uhlanganiswe nobuhlakani.

Ngakho-ke kuyinto ejwayelekile ukulwela ukuhlukanisa imiqondo emibili, okungukuthi imisebenzi yokuphatha kanye namakhono obuhlakani, kuze kufike ezingeni lokuholela abanye ababhali ukuthi bacabangele ukugqagqana okuphelele phakathi kwezinye izingxenye zobuhlakani nezinye izingxenye zokuphatha[2], kunikezwe ukuhlangana okuphezulu kakhulu phakathi kwabo okutholwe kusampula yabantu abadala "be-normotypical" (futhi kunikezwe ukuqagela kwemisebenzi ephezulu ezinganeni maqondana nentuthuko yesikhathi esizayo yamakhono abo okucabanga[4]).


Usizo lokuhlukanisa ukwakhiwa okubili lungavela kumasampula wabantu abangajwayelekile, njengalezo zezingane ezinesiphiwo. UMontoya-Arenas nozakwabo[3] ukhethe inani elikhulu lezingane, elihlukaniswe ngu ubuhlakani obumaphakathi (IQ phakathi kuka-85 no-115), ubuhlakani obuphakeme (IQ phakathi kuka-116 no-129) e ubuhlakani obuphakeme kakhulu (IQ ngenhla kwe-129, i.e. uphiwe); zonke izingane zenze ukuhlolwa kwengqondo kanye nokuhlolwa okubanzi kwemisebenzi yokuphatha. Inhloso bekuwukuhlaziya ukuthi ngabe izakhiwo ezimbili zethiyori zizohambisana yini emaqenjini amathathu ahlukene.

Yini eyavela ocwaningweni?

Yize ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene, izinkomba ezahlukahlukene ezitholakala esikalini sobuhlakani kanye nezikolo ezivivinyweni ezahlukahlukene zemisebenzi yezokuphatha zazihlobene kakhulu kumaqenjana ezingeni eliphakathi neliphakeme lobunhloli; idatha ethakazelisa kakhulu, nokho, enye: eqenjini lezingane ezinesiphiwo izikolo ezahlukahlukene ezitholakala esikalini sobuhlakani nalezo eziphathelene nokuhlolwa kwemisebenzi ephezulu abakhombisanga ukuhlangana okuphawulekayo.
Ngokwalokho okusanda kushiwo, idatha iholela eziphethweni ezimbili:

  • Imisebenzi yokuphatha nobuhlakani amandla amabili ahlukene (noma, okungenani, ukuhlolwa kobuhlakani kanye nokuhlolwa kwabaphathi kukala amakhono ahlukile)
  • Ngokungafani nalokho okwenzeka ezinganeni ezivame ukukhula, kulabo abanesiphiwo sokwenza imisebenzi yokuphatha kuzimele ekuhlakanipheni

Lolu lwazi olubaluleke kakhulu, kepha, njengoba kwenzeka kaningi, zidinga ukuhunyushwa ngokuqapha okukhulu ngemikhawulo yocwaningo, okokuqala isampula engamele bonke abantu (noma yezingane ezijwayele ukukhula, noma abanesiphiwo esikhulu) ngoba zonke izifundo bezikhethiwe ngokwesisekelo sokusebenza kwesikole (okuphezulu kakhulu) .

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