I-Personalised Didactic Plan (noma i-PDP) ingumbhalo olungiselelwe umkhandlu wekilasi lapho ukufundiswa komfundi kwenziwa uqobo izinsimbi ezinxephezelayo kanye / noma izindlela zokuhambisa.

La Umthetho we-170 / 2010 wenza ukubhalwa kwe-PDP kuphoqeleke uma kutholakala ukuthi kunenkinga ethile yokufunda (SLD). Kodwa-ke, isikole singahlela i-pdp noma ngabe akekho kwalokhu kwaziwa, uma umfundi ethola ubunzima. Kafushane, isikole può setha i-PDP ngokuzimela, kodwa shiya yenza lokhu kulandela ukuxilongwa kwe-DSA.

Inhloso yokuxilongwa, noma kunjalo, akukhona ukuphoqa isikole ukuba silungiselele i-PDP. Ngokuphikisana nalokho, imvamisa umbiko wokuthola imininingwane ngokuningiliziwe uba ithuluzi elibalulekile ekwenzeni ukufundisa kube ngempumelelo.


PDP akuyona idokhumenti emile, kodwa kungashintshwa phakathi nonyaka ngokuya ngezidingo zomfundi kanye / noma izinkomba ezengeziwe ekuxilongeni.

Izinsimbi ezinxephezelayo

Amathuluzi enzelwe ubuchwepheshe kanye nezobuchwepheshe ezithatha indawo noma aqalise ukusebenza okudingakalayo emandleni angenakhubazeka (isb. Ukwakheka kwamazwi noma ukusetshenziswa kwesheke sokupela). umthombo: imfundo.it

Izindlela zokusabalalisa

Lokhu kungenelela okuvumela umfundi noma umfundi ukuba angafinyeleli ezinye izinsizakalo, ngenxa yokuphazamiseka, okunzima kakhulu futhi ezingathuthukisi ukufunda (isib: ukukhishwa kokufunda ngokuzwakalayo). umthombo: imfundo.it

I-PDP ilusizo kuphela uma ilungiselelwe kahle. Manje ake sixoxe izindaba ezimbili: kweyokuqala i-PDP "iyiphepha" elingenalutho, ukugcwaliseka okusemthethweni kwesikole okungakuthuthukisi okwenzeka esikoleni komfana; kwesibili, i-PDP iba ​​yithuluzi elithanda ukufunda ngokufundisa eliguqulelwe kuzici zomfundi.

Marco

UMarco uneminyaka eyishumi futhi uya ebangeni lesihlanu. Kusukela eminyakeni yokuqala esikoleni, othisha bambheka njengonqena futhi ongenalusizo. Ngokwabazali, nokho, ingane ekuqaleni yayikhuthazeka futhi inelukuluku, kepha ukungabi bikho kwemiphumela kunciphise umdlandla wakhe kancane kancane. Manje uMarco akasahlaliseki, uya esikoleni ngokungafuni futhi abazali bakhe banenkinga enzima yokumenza enze umsebenzi wesikole. Ebhekene nalobu bunzima, umama waphendukela kuchwepheshe ukuze aqonde ukuthi ubunzima bukaMarco buncike kuphi.

Ekupheleni kokuhlolwa, uchwepheshe unikeza umama kaMarco umbiko lapho kukhonjiswa kuphela igama lokutholwa:

Intuthuko i-dyslexia (F81.0). Isikole sidinga ukusebenzisa uhlelo lokufundisa olwenziwe ngezifiso

Ngalesi sikhathi, umama womfana uletha ukuxilongwa esikoleni futhi, ngemuva kwesikhathi esithile, wenziwa ukuba asayine uhlelo lokufundisa olwenziwe ngezifiso oluqukethe uhlu lwezinto:

Ukusetshenziswa kokusebenza kwamagama

Ukusetshenziswa kwesihloli sokupela

Ukukhululwa ekufundeni ngokuzwakalayo ekilasini

Ukukhululwa ocwaningweni lwe-mnemonic

Ukusetshenziswa kwetafula lokuphindaphinda

Usebenzisa umshini wokubala

Ukusetshenziswa kokuqamba kwenkulumo

Ukukhululwa ekusetshenzisweni komalukeke

[...]

Uhlu belusazoba lude kepha lezi zinto zokuqala sezivele zanele ukusenza siqonde into eyodwa: asibhekene nobuntu uqobo bokufundisa lokho kubheka ubunzima namandla kaMarco. Kungasuselwa ekubeni khona kwamathuluzi wokunxephezela nokusabalalisa futhi wezindawo zokufunda lapho, ngokunikezwa kwezimpawu zikaMarco, bekungeke kudingekile. Esikhundleni salokho, le PDP ivela njengeyodwa inqubo elula esemthethweni okusebenzela ukukhombisa kuphela ukuthi bayawuhlonipha umthetho kepha akubeki ingane ethubeni lokufunda kangcono.

Kucace bha ukuthi othisha kuleli cala banikeze kanjani ukufinyelela kuzo zonke izidingongqangi kanye nezinyathelo zokuhambisa ngenkathi zinengqondo kuphela lokho umfundi okudinga ngempela okufanele akunikezwe.
Ukuqhubeka kule Marco kusengozini yokuvalelwa ngaphandle emathubeni amaningi okufunda futhi abangane bakhe bangacabanga ukuthi uMarco uthole indlela yokusebenza kancane esikoleni nasekhaya.

Kepha wazi kanjani ukuthi ziyini ukwenza ngokwezifiso zemfundo Okokuqala ukuxilongwa okuhle okuningiliziwe kungaba kufanelekile, okungeke kushiwo ngobudlelwano bokuxilongwa kukaMarco (lapho kushiwo igama lokuphazamiseka kuphela); kuye, udokotela uzilinganisele "ekubhaleni" umfana ngaphandle kokunikeza incazelo ekhombisa amakhono nobunzima bakhe:

Yini esiyaziyo ngeyakhe Ukufundwa? Ingabe ihamba kancane, ayilungile, noma yomibili? Hlobo luni lwamaphutha owenzayo?

Mayelana nokwakhe ukusebenza kwengqondo? Ngabe kuhlakaniphile? Kukuziphi izindawo ekhombisa amakhono angcono kuzo futhi kusebenza kuzo ziphi izindawo?

Sibonile ukuthi kwiPDP uMarco wayekhululiwe esifundweni se-mnemonic, kodwa yini esiyaziyo ngeyakhe inkumbulo?

Ngabe uMarco uyakwazi ukuhlala egxile isikhathi eside? Uyakwazi ukuhlala attento ukungazinaki iziphazamiso?

Ayikwazi ukususa imininingwane embhalweni futhi ayisebenzise kalula (imisebenzi ephezulu)?

Kanjani okwakho amakhono olimi?

… Futhi kuneminye imibuzo eminingi ongayibuza!

Othisha bakaMarco abazitholanga izimpendulo zale mibuzo futhi bathola eyodwa ukuxilongwa okunganikezi imininingwane zilusizo, hhayi ebunzimeni bomfundi noma ekutheni kufanele ubhekane kanjani nabo ekufundiseni.

Kulesi simo bekungaba njalo Kungcono ukuthi ucele umhlangano ohlanganyelwe phakathi kothisha, abazali kanye nabaqeqeshiwe owenza ukuhlolwa kokuxilonga, ukuze akwazi ukuthola imininingwane eminingi ngomfana nangesimo, futhi ngaleyo ndlela aqale indlela yokubambisana.

Njengoba sesibonile, ngeshwa izinto zahamba ngendlela ehlukile: phambilini, labo ababephatha lolu hlolo lokuxilonga abenzanga umsebenzi onembile, okwenza lo mbiko wokuxilonga waba ilebula elingenalutho nelingasebenzi; ke, othisha bavele banikeze lonke usizo olunokwenzeka olunikezwe ngumthetho (mhlawumbe ngokwethemba noma mhlawumbe ukuze bazivikele endaweni yokubukwa okungokomthetho) ngaphandle kwezidingo zangempela zikaMarco.

Namuhla uMarco, ngemuva kwale ndlela, uzizwa sengathi akakwazi ukufeza imiphumela yabanye futhi ukulwela ukufunda izinto ezintsha esikoleni kubonakala kuye kungenalusizo, kumenza angakhuthazi kakhulu futhi aqinise umqondo wothisha wokuthi ungumfana onesifiso esincane sokuzibophezela .

Luca

ULuca uneminyaka engu-9 futhi ufunda ibanga lesine. Babona ubunzima ekufundeni ukubhala nokubhala kusukela eminyakeni yokuqala, othisha balungiselela uhlelo lokufundisa olwenziwe ngezifiso ngokuvumelana nomndeni osekuleli banga lesibili. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngemuva kokwenza imisebenzi yokuthuthukisa ukufunda nokubhala (ngemiphumela emibi), ekupheleni konyaka wesikole beluleke abazali bakaLuca ukuthi baye kuchwepheshe ukuze ahlole ngokujulile imisebenzi yokuqonda.

Kulokhu kuhlola kwavela ukuxilongwa ngokwezigaba kwe-

"I-dyslexia kanye ne-dysorthography yentuthuko (F81.0 ne-F81.1)".

Lo mbiko, nokho, wawungagcini kulokhu kepha wangena emininingwaneni yephrofayili yengane ngokombono osebenzayo, ubika ngokuningiliziwe ubunzima okuhlangatshezwane nabo, njengalokho

“Ukufundwa kukhonjiswa ngamaphutha amafonotiki […]. Ngokubhala, amaphutha agxile kokungahambi kahle kolimi lwesiNtaliyane, ikakhulukazi kuma-digraphs ('bago' for 'bathroom', 'vigil for' vigil ',' scopero 'for' strike ') ".

noma ngisho lokho

“Ukuhlolwa kukhombisa ubunzima obukhulu bokugxila isikhathi eside (ukunakekelwa okuqhubekayo) […]. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kunokushoda kwenkumbulo yomlomo yesikhashana ”.

Ngaphezu kobunzima, amakhono uLuca adlula ngawo, isibonelo lokho

"Unamakhono amahle kakhulu okubonwa kwendawo, ekhombisa ukuthi angakwazi ukucubungula imininingwane engaqondakali ukuze afinyelele isisombululo sezinkinga".

Umbiko wabe uqhubeka nokuchaza imiphumela ebhekene nobunzima ahlangabezana nabo (njengokuphutha okungenakugwemeka, ikakhulukazi kwezinye izinhlobo zamagama, isidingo sekhefu ukulungisa izinkinga zokunaka kanye nobunzima bokuqonda izincazelo zomlomo eziyinkimbinkimbi ngenxa yokushoda kwememori yokusebenza)

Engxenyeni yokugcina yombiko bekukhona iziphakamiso zokubhalwa phansi kwe-PDP kuLuca (njengesibonelo, isiphakamiso sokuqhubeka nokusiza ingane ekubhaleni kodwa, ngasikhathi sinye, ukuyinika isisindo esincane ekuhloleni izivivinyo, noma ukunikeza isikhathi esithe xaxa sokwenza izivivinyo ukuzama ukunqanda ubunzima bakhe bokunaka).

Ngemuva kokufunda umbiko wokuxilongwa, othisha bakaLuca ngokushesha bazenza batholakalela nabachwepheshe ababeyibhalile kanye nabazali bengane uqobo, ukuze babe nombono ophelele wesimo futhi sebenzisana amasu anokwenzeka ndawonye ukubhekana nobunzima bakhe esikoleni futhi kuyibeka ezimweni ezinhle kakhulu zokufunda.
Bese bekhethwa ndawonye izindlela eziwusizo kakhulu zokuhambisa kanye namathuluzi wokubuyisana kulokhu, ngaleyo ndlela uvikela ukuveza uLuca ekukhungathekeni okungadingekile (ngokwesibonelo, ukumsindisa ekufundeni ngokuzwakalayo ekilasini kuqala), ngaphandle kokusebenzisa ezinye izindlela kulokhu obekungeke kube wusizo (ngokwesibonelo, ukusetshenziswa kwesibali , ngoba uLuca akazange akhombise ubunzima ekutholeni izinqubo zokubala).

Esimweni esanda kuchazwa, umsebenzi wenziwe ngendlela enhle kakhulu: okokuqala othisha baba matasa ukuzama ukugcwalisa izikhala zikaLuca ekufundeni ngemisebenzi yokuqinisa, bese ubona ukungathuthukisi, batusa ukubonisana nodokotela onguchwepheshe; Ukuhlolwa kokuxilonga nakho kwenziwa kahle, okwaholela ekutheni a umbiko obhaliwe onemininingwane lapho ubunzima bengane futhi i amasu okufanele asetshenziswe; ekugcineni, kwasungulwa eyodwa ukusebenzisana phakathi kothisha, abazali kanye nochwepheshe okwaholela ekutheni a ukwenza ngokwezifiso kwangempela kokufundisa.

Namuhla uLuca, ngemuva kokuxilongwa kanye nokuhlangana kothisha, sekuxinile, waqonda ukuthi ubunzima bakhe buthinta ingxenye yokufunda yesikole kuphela nokuthi banganxeshezelwa ngokwanele, futhi ngenxa yamakhono amangalisayo anayo futhi aqaphele.
Akasasabi ukubonwa njengongenaludaba noma engenamandla amakhulu kepha, kunalokho, uzizwa eqondakala kothisha futhi abaluleke kakhulu.Ayazi ukuthi ngamasu afanele awekho umgomo obekiwe futhi uzuze ukuzethemba okukhulu nogqozi.

Ngalezi zindaba ezimbili umuzwa wokuxilongwa kanye ne-PDP. Ukuxilongwa akudingeki kube ilebula elilula elenza ingane ihambisane nokugula, kepha kufanele imele umuntu ebunzimeni bakhe nasemandleni akhe. Ngisho nangaphambi kokuba abuyisele ingane esigabeni esithile sokuxilonga, kufanele akhombise lapho umuntu ekhombisa kakhulu ukuthi yiziphi izindawo zokuqonda nobunzima futhi kuzo zibonakalise kangcono umthamo.

Ngamanye amagama, akwanele ukusho ukuthi umfundi akaxinekile kodwa kudingeka sihlaziye amakhono akhe ngokuningiliziwe ngoba izinkinga zesikole azitholakali (noma hhayi kuphela) ebunzimeni obuthile ekufundeni, ekubhaleni noma ekubaleni: ukunika nje izibonelo ezimbalwa, kungaba nezinkinga ngokunaka, inkumbulo noma ulimi.

Kwesinye isikhathi sibona inkinga ehlukile: uma "ilebula" le-dyslexia linamathele enganeni, kucatshangwa ukuthi lonke uchungechunge lwezinye izinkinga luhlangana, ngaphandle kokuba khona kwabo kutholakale ngempela.

Ngenxa yalokho Ukuxilongwa okwenziwe kuphela nge-IQ test ngeke kuthathwe njengokuhle (isibonelo, i-WISC-IV) kanye nokuhlolwa kokufunda, ukubhala nokubala, kepha kuzodingeka ukwandisa ukuhlolwa nezinye izivivinyo eziphenya ezinye izinto eziningi, njenge- inkumbulo yesikhathi esifushane nede, TheAttenzione, lo imisebenzi ephezulu futhi i amakhono olimi (bheka futhi izivivinyo ku-dyslexia).

Ukuba nalolu lwazi olubalulekile kwenzeka ukuthi udale uhlelo lwangempela lwe-didactic ngokwezifiso: othisha, abasebenzisa ukusebenzisana kochwepheshe, bazokwazi ukuvumelanisa ukufundisa nezidingo zomfundi, kucatshangelwa izici zakhe futhi ngenxa yalokho bakwazi ukukhetha amathuluzi afanele kakhulu odabeni ngalunye, ngaleyo ndlela bembeke ethubeni lokufunda nangezinye izindlela nangezinye izindlela kuyasebenza ecaleni ngalinye.

Kunokuzenzakalela okuningi okungenzeka kube khona, kokubili phakathi kwezinsimbi zokunxephezela kanye nezinyathelo zesiphathimandla, zingaguqulwa ngamacala ngamacala futhi zibuyekezwe naphakathi nonyaka wesikole. Kubalulekile-ke nokho ukuthi le ndlela ingafakwa ohlwini olulula lokuzokhethwa, kube sengathi kungumvuzo wokududuza ukugcina umndeni wengane ulungile.
Umthetho 170 ka-2010 wabhalwa ngenhloso yokubona bobabili ubunzima namakhono alezi zingane, ukuhlinzeka ngezindlela zokuzenza zikwazi ukufunda: yilokhu kanye okudingeka ukuxilongwa okuhle ne-PDP enhle.

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