Labo abalandela le sayithi manje sebesetshenziselwa yona, sivame ukukhuluma nge-ADHD. Sikhulume ngakho ngakubona kwalabo abahlala nezingane kanye nentsha enalezi zimpawu, njengoba nje sakhuluma ngakho kusuka endaweni yokubukwa kochwepheshe, ikakhulukazi mayelana nephrofayili ye-neuropsychological.

Esinye isihloko esivame ukugxila kuso okukhathazayo ukuvela kwe-ADHD ngobudala obukhulayo. Lesi yisici sokuthi abazali bezingane abeza kochwepheshe bazibuze kaningi, futhi kusobala ukuthi kunjalo. Imvamisa bayashaqeka ngoba besaba ukuthi impilo yabo ngeke ibe lula ngoba besaba ukuthi kungenzeka bangabi nokuzimela ngokwanele. Ngenhlanhla, umgwaqo awuhlali ukhuphuka njalo, yize kukhona ubunzima obuvame ukwenziwa.

Ukusuka kuleli phuzu, ucwaningo lwesayensi luwusizo kakhulu, ikakhulukazi labo abahlaziya ama-trajectories wezinguquko zezingane isikhathi eside. Kumele futhi kushiwo ukuthi lezi zifundo, ezinikezwe yinkimbinkimbi yazo, ziyindlala impela; kulokhu, noma kunjalo, sinenhlanhla ngoba sesitholile[1], kuthakazelisa kakhulu, okuthinta imali engenayo kwezomnotho yabantu abadala etholakala ne-ADHD eminyakeni yokukhula.


Ucwaningo

Njengoba sishilo, inhloso yocwaningo bekufanele phenya imiphumela yesikhathi eside ye-ADHD empumelelweni yezomnotho. Ngale njongo uPelham III nabahlanganyeli bakhe[1] phakathi kuka-1987 no-1996, bakhetha iqembu lezingane ezingama-364 elatholakala line-ADHD kanye neqembu lezingane ezingama-240 elikhulayo, ezaphinde zahlaziywa lapho zineminyaka engama-25 ukuphenya isimo salo senhlalo nomnotho. Ukuhlola kwenziwa futhi lapho eneminyaka engama-30 ukuhlola lolu shintsho eminyakeni emihlanu.

Ezenye

Lokho abacwaningi abakwazile ukukubona kuyathakazelisa kakhulu futhi imiphumela ikufanele ukusho ngakunye.

Iqembu lokuqala lemiphumela ethintekayo iqoqwe eneminyaka yobudala engama-30:

  • Abantu abane-ADHD babenamaphesenti abangasebenzi ephakeme kune-standardotypics, lokho kungama-22% uma kuqhathaniswa ne-13%.
  • Abantu abangama-30% - 33% abane-ADHD basaphila ekhaya nabazali bakho (uma kuqhathaniswa no-9% - 12% we-normotypics).
  • Iqembu lezifundo ezitholwe ene-ADHD Yena wathola I-37% ngaphansi kweqembu elilawulayo.
  • Ngokwesilinganiso, abantu abane-ADHD babeke eceleni i-66% ukonga.
  • Ama-22% abantu abane-ADHD atholakele usizo lwezezimali oluvela kubazali ngenkathi kuyi-standardotypics kuphela i-8%.
  • Ukushiya ikhaya labo, ama-47% ezifundo ezazine-ADHD wabuyela endlini yabazali bakhe, kuqhathaniswa ne-27% yeqembu elilawulayo.
  • Ekugcineni, abantu abane-ADHD babuzile usizo oluphuthumayo lwezomnotho imvamisa ephindwe kabili kuqhathaniswa neminye.

Isici esijabulisayo ukuthi lapho ulawula kuphela ukuncishiswa kwesimpawu sangaphansi kwe-ADHD, imiphumela eminingi ihlale ibalulekile, noma ngabe ucubungula iqembu elingaphansi kwe-ADHD kepha ukuthethelelwa okuphelele kwezimpawu.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, imiphumela ye-ADHD ezingeni lomnotho yayihlukaniswe ngokwengxenye yizinga lemfundo. Ngamanye amazwi, lapho kukhuphuka izinga lemfundo, umehluko omncane kwezomnotho ubhekwe uma uqhathaniswa nokulindelwe kubantu "abajwayelekile". Kodwa-ke, kufanele kuphawulwe ukuthi umphumela wehlisiwe kuphela kepha awuzange unyamalale, okuwukuthi, ngisho nalapho kukhona amazinga aphezulu ezemfundo, umehluko kwezomnotho uthambekele ekuphikeleleni, yize kunjalo ngezinga elincane.

Iqembu lesibili lemiphumela esikhundleni salokhu lathinta ushintsho oluphakathi kweminyaka yobudala engama-25 no-30:

  • Qhathaniswa phila nabazali bakho, kule nkathi, abantu abane-ADHD basuka ku-40% baya kuma-33% kanti ushintsho lwalumakwe kakhulu kuma-standardotypics asuka ku-28% aya ku-12%.
  • Eqenjini nge-ADHDukukhuphuka kwemali etholwa njalo ngenyanga ngeminyaka engu-5 kwakungu- $ 285, ngenkathi eqenjini elilawulayo imali engenayo yanyanga zonke ikhule ngama- $ 974.
  • Abantu abane-ADHD, ngaphezulu kweminyaka engu-5, ukonga lenyukile ngo- $ 1.508 ngenkathi ama-standardotypes enyusa ukonga ngama- $ 3.722.
  • Ekugcineni, ngenkathi ngiseqenjini lokulawula inani labantu ababenomuzi lakhula lisuka kuma-38% laya kuma-42%, eqenjini eline-ADHD i abanikazi bempahla lehle lisuka ku-33% laya kuma-22%.

Iqembu lesithathu lemiphumela lithinte ukuqagela kulo lonke isikhathi sempilo yemininingwane esanda kufakwa; ebaluleke kakhulu lokhu:

  • Kuqhathaniswa nokulawula izikhonzi zeqembu, lezo ezine-ADHD babezohola esikhathini sonke sokuphila $ 1,1 wezigidi ezingaphansi (izigidi ezingama-2,26 esikhundleni se-3,36 million).

Iqembu lokugcina lemiphumela lihlala lihlobene nokuqagelwa kwedatha esivele ifakwe kuhlu, kepha kulokhu ukulinganisa izimpahla ngesikhathi sokuthatha umhlalaphansi:

  • Izilinganiso ze izimpahla eziqoqiwe ukusuka kubantu abane-ADHD ukuya kuminyaka yokuthatha umhlalaphansi ebanga kusuka ekunciphiseni okungama-35% uma kuqhathaniswa ne-standardotypics, kuze kufike ku-64%.

iziphetho

Lapho sikhuluma nge-ADHD sivame ukucabanga ngemiphumela esheshayo ekusebenzeni nasekuziphatheni kwesikole, mhlawumbe kanye nokuba khona kwesikhathi esizayo kwezinye izinkinga ezinjengamazinga akhuphukile okuxineka, ukudangala noma ukuhlukunyezwa kwezidakamizwa (okuyinto, kuhle ukuyikhumbula, akuzona njalo ukhona). Kulesi simo, esikhundleni salokho, izinkomba zezomnotho zithathwe njengezinkomba, zithola indlela i-ADHD ekhombisa ngayo imiphumela cishe kuwo wonke amapharamitha (inzuzo, amandla okusindisa, isidingo sosizo lomnotho kwabanye ...).

Phambilini, besishilo ukuthi lezi zinkinga zezezimali bezikhona naseqenjini elingaphansi kwe-ADHD ngokuxolelwa kwezimpawu; lolu hlelo lufanele kakhulu futhi kufanele luthathwe kanzima ngabadokotela abasebenza kule ndawo. Imvamisa ekuhlelweni kwezindlela zokwelapha kubantu abane-ADHD sigxile kakhulu ezicini ezihlobene nokuhlolwa (ukwenziwa ngcono kokuqonda) kulokho okubikwa ngabazali nothisha (ukuthuthuka kokuziphatha). Esikhundleni salokho, lolu cwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi imiphumela ye-ADHD ingaba banzi kakhulu kangangokuba idinga ukubhekwa kabanzi.
Ngokusobala akubona bonke abantu abane-ADHD ababandakanyeka kulolu cwaningo ababenezinkinga zezimali; I-15% yabo, empeleni, yayinesimo esihle ngokwezezimali ngokuya ngamazinga ase-US (ukuqaphela nokho ukuthi eqenjini lokulawula leli phesenti likhuphuke laya ku-45% yabaneminyaka engamashumi amathathu).

Enye into efanelekile ephathelene nezinga lemfundo. Yize kungubufakazi bezibalo kuphela, imininingwane iveza ukuthi izinga eliphakeme lokutadisha linciphisa imiphumela emibi ye-ADHD kwemali engenayo kwezomnotho; ngasikhathi sinye, imininingwane ikhombisa ukuthi ama-9% wesampula labantu abane-ADHD bashiya izifundo zabo kusenesikhathi (uma kuqhathaniswa ne-1% eqenjini lokulawula) nokuthi yi-14% yabo kuphela efinyelela ibanga le-bachelor's, esingalingana nalo iziqu zeminyaka emithathu (kuqhathaniswa ne-53% yeqembu lokulawula).

Ngakho-ke kungenzeka ukuthi ukuguquguquka okuyisisekelo "kokwelashwa" ku-ADHD maqondana nokungenelela ukugwema ukuhamba kwesikole, ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izingane zifinyelela inani eliphakeme kakhulu lezikole nezinjongo zezifundo ngamathuba wazo.

Okokugcina, kubalulekile ukuthi kubhekwe imikhawulo ethile yalolu cwaningo ebeka ukuqaphela ekuchazeni kanye nasekuqondisweni kwemiphumela yako jikelele. Ngaphandle kokungena imininingwane eminingi kakhulu (labo abafuna njalo bangajula ngokufunda ucwaningo lwangempela oluxhumeke ebhayibhelini), cabanga nje ukuthi le mininingwane iqoqwa ngesampula sabantu base-US, okungukuthi ngokwesimo esihlukile kwe-Italy, yomabili maqondana imvelo yesikole neyunivesithi, zombili maqondana nomsebenzi.
Kodwa-ke, le datha idinga ukubonakaliswa okukhulu, ikakhulukazi odokotela nabaseshi ababhekene nalo mkhakha.

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