Siqale sakhuluma ngenkinga ye ukusilela kwengqondo kanye nemiphumela yazo emandleni okushayela, noma kunjalo, sikwenze ngomongo we multiple sclerosis. Manje esikhundleni salokho sizokhuluma ngosesho[1] Kwenziwa eHolland lapho kwahlolwa khona ikhono lokushayela kubantu abanesifo i-Alzheimer's. Ikakhulu, kwahlolisiswa ukuthi izindlela ezintathu ezahlukene zokuphenya zikwazile kanjani ukwahlukanisa abantu abakwaziyo ukushayela yize bekukhona ngaphambili.

Izindlela ezisetshenzisiwe bezikhona

  1. le izingxoxo zomtholampilo;
  2. la ukuhlolwa kwe-neuropsychological;
  3. il umshayeli wokushayela.

Ukuqonda ukuthi ngabe ababambe iqhaza ocwaningweni bakwazi ukushayela, bonke bahlolwa ngokushayela umgwaqo, ngenxa yalokho kwabekwa ngokuthi "kufanelekile" futhi "akulungile".


Kamuva, kwahlolwa ukuthi zinembe kangakanani izindlela ezintathu kulezi ekuboneni abantu abafanele futhi abangafaneleki ukushayela.

Zazihlanganisani lezi zinhlobo ezintathu zokuhlola?

  • izingxoxo zomtholampilo: bekuhlanganiswe ne-Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) nemibuzo emhlahlandlela. Kuzona zozimbili lezi zinhlaka, zombili izifundo zokucwaninga (iziguli ze-Alzheimer's) kanye noyedwa wazo umnakekeli.
    Mayelana ne-CDR, lolu luhlu lwemibuzo luye lwafuna ukuphenya izindawo ezifana ukuma, inkumbulo, ukwahlulela nokuxazulula izinkinga, ubudlelwane bezenhlalo, ikhaya nokuzilibazisa, ukunakekelwa komuntu.
    Mayelana nohlu lwemibuzo lokushayela, imininingwane yabantu, iphrofayili yokushayela nemibuzo ebuzwa ngokuziphatha okuphephile kokushayela.
  • Ukuhlolwa kwe-Neuropsychological: kusetshenziswe izivivinyo ezahlukahlukene ezifana ne Trail Ukwenza Ukuhlolwa A (TMT-A) kanye ne Trail Ukwenza Ukuhlolwa B (TMT-B) yocwaningo olubonakalayo lwendawo kanye nokuguquguquka kwengqondo, Ukuhlolwa Kwesimo Sokwengqondo Kwasemini Nengqondo (MMSE) njengokuhlola ukuwohloka komqondo, i Imidwebo ngamakhono okwakha i-praxico, Mazes amabili ukubona okubonakalayo,I-Adaptive Tachistoscopic Traic Perception Test (ATAVT) ukuhlola amandla okwenza ukubukwa okuphelele kwesimo sethrafikhi, i Umbono Wethrafikhi ukuhlola ulwazi lwe-theory mayelana nethrafikhi,Isivivinyo Sokubheka kweHazard ukuqonda ukuthi bangakanani abantu abakwazile ukuqonda izimo zobungozi esimeni sokushayela, i Isikhathi Sokusabela S1, S2 ed S3 ukukala izikhathi zokuphendula nokusabela kokuvinjwa kokuthonya okubukwayo nokwamazwi.
  • Ukushayela simulator: iyi-software eyakhelwe izinhloso zokuhlola ezizama ukuphinda ibuyise isimo sangempela sokushayela ngeningi lokuqondisa, i-gearbox, izisekelo, i-cockpit kanye nemisindo enengqondo.

Imiphumela

Zonke izindlela ezi-3 zokuphenya zivunyelwe ukubandlulula izifundo 'ezifanele' nezingafaneleki ukuba zishayele kakhulu ngaphezu kwezinga lecala. Noma kunjalo, imiphumela ibingafani ngokuphelele, futhi kuholele ekuthini kunembe kangakanani kuhluke kakhulu[1]:

  • Izingxoxo zemitholampilo, ngokunemba cishe kwe-80% ekubandluleni kahle phakathi kwe-'fanele 'ne' engafanele 'ukushayela, bekuyikho ayifundisi kakhulu, mhlawumbe kungenxa yamakhono wokuhlaziya we-meta-analytical and self-testing angathola usizo kubantu besifo i-Alzheimer's. Kodwa-ke, izingxenye zezingxoxo ebezifanele kakhulu ekuqageleni ukuqina kokushayela bezikhona ukuma nesahlulelo e ukuxazulula inkinga.
  • Ukusetshenziswa kwe umshayeli wokushayela kwakubonakala kuwusizo kakhulu, ukuza kuukunemba okungaphezulu kwama-85%. Kodwa-ke, lokhu kwakuyivivinyo lokuhlola elingajwayelekile ukusebenza lapho kwenziwa umtholampilo nsuku zonke.
  • Ukusetshenziswa kwe ukuhlolwa kwe-neuropsychological ibiphakathi kwezindlela ezintathu zokuhlola, okufundisayo kakhulu, ukufinyelela aukunemba cishe kwe-91% futhi kudlula ngokusobala lokho kwe-simulator yokushayela, ngaphandle kokusebenza okuphezulu kwe-facade kwale yokugcina. Ukuhlolwa okuwusizo kakhulu kwakuyizikhathi zokuphendula okuzwakala (Isikhathi Sokusabela S2), I-MMSE (ngokungafani nalokho okuye kwaqashelwa nge iziguli ezine-sclerosis eziningi futhi ngaphandle kokuwohloka komqondo), Umbono Wethrafikhi futhi iIsivivinyo Sokubheka kweHazard.

Ekugcineni, abacwaningi bahlanganisa izindlela ezintathu zokuhlola ukuqina kokushayela ukukala ukuthi lokhu bekungakanani[1]:

  • nell 'ukusetshenziswa kanyekanye kwezingxoxo zemitholampilo, ukushayela kwe-simulator nokuhlola kwe-neuropsychological kuvezwe inani elinqamulelwe elivunyelwe ukufinyelela ku-'ukushayela nokunemba kokushayela cishe kwe-93% (ngaleyo ndlela engeza cishe ukunemba okungu-2% ekuhlolweni kwe-neuropsychological). Kufanele kucaciswe ukuthi okufana nalokhu kungaba nzima ukukusebenzisa ekuhlolweni okuvamile kokufaneleka kokushayela kwemitholampilo.

Iziphetho nokucabangisisa

Ngokusho kwedatha evela kulolu cwaningo[1], uma kungabazeka ngamakhono asele okushayela eziguli ezinesifo i-Alzheimer's, kuvela ukuhlolwa kwe-neuropsychological kubalulekile. Kodwa-ke, okunye ukuhlolwa okusetshenziswe kulolu cwaningo akuyona ingxenye yokuhlolwa okujwayelekile kwe-neuropsychological (cabanga ngezikhathi zokuphendula futhi, nangaphezulu, Umbono Wethrafikhi futhi konkeIsivivinyo Sokubheka kweHazard) kanye ke le miphumela ayitholakali kalula ukujwayeza ukwenza imisebenzi yezokwelapha ezweni lethu. Ngakho-ke, kungakufanelekela ukwenza ucwaningo olufanayo e-Italy ukuze uqonde ukuthi lisebenza kangakanani futhi lithembekile kangakanani amathuluzi asetshenziswa kaningi ngabapheki bezengqondo amaNtaliyane noma

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