A -BC - D - E - F - G - I - L - M - O - P - QR - S - T - V

A

Indawo yokuhlala ngezwi: ukuthambekela kokukhuluma ngomlomo kufane kakhulu nezici zezwi ze-interlocutor (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37).

I-aphasia engasho lutho: [aphasia] I-Aphasia ebonakala ngokungakhiqizi kahle, imisho emifushane, ukukhuluma kanzima, i-prosody engasebenzi kahle; kungaba khona i-agrammatism. Indlela yokuhlukanisa ii-aphasia okushelelayo kokungagudluki yilesi: ukuba khona kwe-apraxia ngamazwi, ubude besigwebo, inani lokukhuluma, ubukhona be-agrammatism noma i-jargon ne-prosody. Ngokuvamile, ukuba khona kwe-apraxia ngamazwi nobude besigwebo kucatshangelwa kakhulu: uma ingekho imisho eyakhiwe okungenani amagama ayisithupha (okungenani umusho owodwa kwabayishumi) ngokuvamile i-aphasia ayigelezi (I-Basso, Ukwazi nokufundisa kabushai-aphasia, I-2009: 64).

I-Afemia: [aphasia] Isikhathi sokuqala salokho esizobizwa kamuva aphasia, eyenziwe nguPaul Broca ukuchaza labo abangakwazi ukukhuluma ngamazwi yize benokuqonda okuhle.


Isifungo: [Ulimi] Inqubo yesistimu: esikhundleni somsindo oyisicefe ufake oyindida. Isibonelo: "cagia" ye "indlu" (cf. Indatshana yethu ngePhonetics neFonology)

Ukuhlaziya Okuhlukile (ANOVA): [izibalo, indlela yokucwaninga] inqubo yezibalo ekuvumela ukuthi uqhathanise amaqembu ahlukile enkambisweni eyodwa yokuqanjiwe kwe-null hypothesis, ngokuqhathanisa ukungafani phakathi kwamaqembu nokuhluka okungahleliwe (bheka futhi UBolzani noCanestrari, Logic ye-Statistical Test, 1995).

I-Anteriorizzazione: [Ulimi] Inqubo yesistimu: esikhundleni somsindo ongemuva ngeyangaphambili. Isibonelo: "tasa" kwe "ndlu" (cf. Indatshana yethu ngePhonetics neFonology).

aposiopesis: [linguistics] Ukuphazanyiswa okungazelelwe kwesigwebo esingaqhubeki phambili. Njengesisho, uhlose ukuvumela umfundi noma umlaleli aqagele wonke umusho. Endabeni ka-aphasias, noma kunjalo, imvamisa kuba ngumthelela wokuzibandakanya wokungakwazi ukuqhubeka ngenxa yobunzima ekuhlelweni kwesigwebo noma ezinkingeni ekubuyiseni isikhathi.

Ukufunda okungenaphutha: [I-neuropsychology, memory] inqubo yokubamba ngekhanda yaqala yathuthukiselwa iziguli ezinamandla kakhulu, ezibandakanya ukufundwa okuqondiswa nokwenzelwe lula ulwazi ukuvikela iphutha noku ngekhanda kwalo ezingeni elifakiwe (bona futhi Ukufunda Okungenaphutha Ekuvuseleleni Okuqondayo: Isibuyekezo Esibucayi, I-2012; I-Mazzucchi, ukuvuselelwa kwe-Neuropsychological, 2012).

Apraxia: [I-neuropsychology] ukuphazamiseka kokufinyeleleka kokunyakaza okufundile, zombili ukuthinta kokusebenzisa izinto nezinto zomzimba ongokomfanekiso. Akuwona umphumela wokushintshwa kohlelo lwezimoto, lokuntuleka kokuqonda, lokushoda kokunaka noma lokusilela ekubonakalweni kwezinto (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

I-apraxia efanelekayo: [i-neuropsychology] i-apraxia ephathelene nokusetshenziswa kwento (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

I-Ideomotor apraxia: [I-neuropsychology] i-apraxia ephathelene nokuguqulwa kwezimpawu zomzimba ezihlukile, zombili zingenanjongo (kokulingisa) nokomfanekiso (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001)

I-apraxia eyakhayo: [i-neuropsychology] uhlobo lwe-apraxia oluphathelene nokufinyeleleka kwesibalo sejometri (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

I-apraxia yezingubo: [i-neuropsychology] i-apraxia ephathelene nekhono lokugqoka (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

I-apraxia yamehlo: [i-neuropsychology] i-apraxia ebandakanya ushintsho lokunyakaza kwamehlo (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

Mashi Apraxia: [i-neuropsychology] uhlobo lwe-apraxia oluholela ekungakwazi ukuthatha izinyathelo (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

I-Optic ataxia: [i-neuropsychology] ukusilela kokuhlanganisa okubonakalayo okubandakanya ukufinyelela emaphutheni ngomlenze obheke entweni ebonwayo. Imvamisa kubangelwa ukulimala kobuchopho endleleni yokubuka yangemuva. Akuncikile ekwehlulekeni ukwamukela into ukuthi ifinyelele futhi iqonde, kepha ukuxhumana nayo ezingeni lezimoto kunzima (bheka futhi ILadàvas neBerti, iN Manual of Neuropsychology, 2014).

ukuthembeka (noma ukuthembeka): [psychometry] impahla yensimbi yokulinganisa (ukuhlola) ekhombisa izinga lokuqina kwezikolo lapho izilinganiso ziphindwa. Ngamanye amagama, isitshela ukuthi isivivinyo sinokwethenjelwa kangakanani (bheka futhi UWeltkovitz, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuziPhatha ngo-2009).

Ukunakwa okukhethiwe: [I-neuropsychology, ukunakwa] isakhi sokunakwa esihlobene nokukwazi ukwaba izinsizakalo zokubhekisisa kusethulo esifanele, sinciphise ukuphazamiseka kwesikhuthazo esikhona kepha esingahambisani nomsebenzi okufanele wenziwe. Isizinda sokunakwa esikhethiwe sifaka ukunakwa okugxile, ukunakwa okuhlukaniswe phakathi nokunakwa okushintshanayo (I-Vallar et al., Ukuvuselelwa Kwe-Neuropsychological, 2012).

B

I-Compact Bilingualism (noma izilimi eziningi): [ulimi] lapho izilimi ezimbili zifundwe ngasikhathi sinye (bheka UMarini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolimi, 2014: 68)

Izilimi ezimbili ezihlanganisiwe (noma ubuningi bezilimi): [ulimi] lapho izilimi ezimbili noma ngaphezulu zifundwe ngaphambi kokuthomba kodwa hhayi kumibuthano yomndeni (isb. ukudluliselwa) (bheka UMarini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolimi, 2014: 68)

Izilimi ezimbili ezingaphansi (noma ubuningi bezilimi): [ulimi] lapho kusetshenziswa ulimi olulodwa noma ngaphezulu kusetshenziswa ulimi lokuqala njengomlamuli (bona UMarini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolimi, 2014: 68)

Izilimi ezimbili zokuqala ezilandelanayo: [ulimi] lapho ingane ivezwe olimini lwesibili ngemuva kolokuqala, kepha nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ngaphambi kweminyaka yobudala eyisishiyagalombili (bona UMarini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolimi, 2014: 68)

Izilimi ezimbili ezilandelanayo ezilandelanayo: [ulimi] lapho ingane ivezwe olimini lwesibili ngemuva kolokuqala, kepha ngemuva kweminyaka eyisishiyagalombili (bheka UMarini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolimi, 2014: 68)

Izilimi ezimbili kanyekanye: [ulimi] lapho ingane ivezwe kusukela ezinsukwini zokuqala zokuphila iye ezilimini ezimbili (bheka UMarini ne Ukuphazamiseka kolimi, 2014: 68)

C

Isigwebo senkwali (noma ibinzana lokusekela): ibinzana elisetshenziswa kakhulu elingasetshenziswa ukuthola amagama athile (isb.: "Ngicela unginike ...").

circumlocution: [linguistics] Ngisebenzisa i- "turn of phrase" ukubhekisa egameni elingatholakali (kuvame kakhulu ku-aphasia). Isibonelo: "lowo wokusika isinkwa" ukusho "ummese".

Ikhono sipelingi: [ukufunda] ukukwazi ukuhlonipha imithetho nemihlangano ekhona ngolimi lwethu lwamanje oluqondisa ukuguqulwa kolimi olulalelwe noma olucatshangelwe olimini olwethulwe ngama-graphemes (Tressoldi noCornoldi, 2000, Ibhethri Lokuhlolwa Kokusebenza Kokubhala Nokusipela Esikoleni Sesibopho)

Ukuxhumana Ngezokuxhumana Nokungenelela (i-CAA): noma yikuphi ukuxhumana okufaka noma okukhulisa ulimi lomlomo; iyindawo yokusebenza komtholampilo efuna ukukhokhela ukukhubazeka kwesikhashana noma unomphela kwabantu abanezidingo eziyinkimbinkimbi zokuxhumana (i-ASHA, 2005, ekhonjiwe ku UConstantine, Wakha izincwadi nezindaba nge-CAA, 2011: 54)

AmaConduites d'approche: [aphasia] ukuzama ukusondela egameni ngokuqala okungelona iqiniso noma ngama-paraphasias amafonotiki. Isibonelo: "la pa ... pasca, la pasma, la pastia ..." ukusho "ipasta" (bona isibonelo Marini, Neurolinguistics Manual, 2018: 143 e I-Mazzucchi, ukuvuselelwa kwe-Neuropsychological, 2012)

ingxoxo: [i-neuropsychology] kumongo wokuphazamiseka kwememori kuyisimo "esihle" esilungiselelwe njengokukhiqizwa okungazibandakanyi kwezitatimende noma izenzo ezingahambelani nemvelaphi yesihloko noma isimo esedlule, samanje noma sesikhathi esizayo (Kusuka ngentshebeG. (1993b). Amaphethini ahlukile wokuhlanganacortex29567-581) - sibonga u-Ilaria Zannoni

ukuhlanganisa: [Izibalo, indlela yokucwaninga] ukuzihlanganisa phakathi kokuhluka okubili okufana nokwahluka kolunye kufana nokwahluka kolunye. Ukwahluka okubili okuhlobene kuhlobene, ukuqina kokuqina kuzoba namandla. Ukuhlangana kuyahluka phakathi kwezikolo ezi-1 (njengoba kukhuphuka okukodwa okuguqukayo, ukwanda okungaphezulu kokuphakeme) no -1 (njengoba kukhuphuka okuguquguqukayo kokunye, kukhona ukwehla okungapheli kokunye; ngesibalo esingu-0, kukhona esikhundleni salokho ukungabikho okuphelele kokuxhumanisa phakathi kokuhluka okubili.
Ukuba khona kokuhlangana, noma kuqinile, akubonisi ukuxhumeka kwesizathu phakathi kokuhluka okubili (bheka futhi I-Welkowits, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuZiphatha, 2009).

Ukuhlwaya: [aphasia] isiphakamiso esincane, ifonimitha kanye / noma i-grapemic, esinikezwe esimweni lapho isiguli sehluleka ukubuyisa igama elihlosiwe ngokuzimele (bona, ngokwesibonelo, uCroroy et al., Kusetshenziswa ukukhishwa kwemigudu yokuqanjwa kwamagama ngokuzenzekelayo ukubikezela ukusabela kwento ekwelashweni kwe-anomia ku-aphasia, 2012)

D

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] ukucindezela kokufika kwe-neuronal kwesakhiwo esiqondiwe. Lokhu kwenzeka nge-lesion of the neurons ekusukeni kwama-axons afinyelela esakhiweni esiqondisiwe, noma nge-lesion of axons uqobo (bona futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

Ubuthakathaka bengqondo: [I-neuropsychology] indlela emnene yokuntuleka kwengqondo (bona futhi ubuhlakani bengqondo noma ukubuyiselwa kwengqondo), ebonakala ngokusebenza kahle kancane kwesilinganiso sokusebenza kwengqondo (IQ phakathi kuka-70 no-50), ubunzima ekuvumelaneni kwezenhlalo nasekubonakaleni kokusilela ngesikhathi sokuthuthuka

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] ukucindezela kokufika kwe-neuronal kwesakhiwo esiqondiwe. Lokhu kwenzeka nge-lesion of the neurons ekusukeni kwama-axons afinyelela esakhiweni esiqondisiwe, noma nge-lesion of axons uqobo (bona futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

Ukuwohloka kwe-Neuronal: [i-neuroscience] ukulahleka okuqhubekayo kwesakhiwo esithile nomsebenzi we-neuron noma iqembu lama-neurons okungaholela ekunyamalaleni kwawo (bona futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

muffling: [language] Inqubo yesistimu: ukushintshwa komsindo onomsindo ngezwa. Isibonelo: "panana" ye "banana" (cf. Indatshana yethu ngePhonetics neFonology)

Ukuphambuka okujwayelekile (kusho ukuphambuka kwesikwele): [izibalo] zilinganisa ngokuhluka kwesethi yedatha, etholwe empandeni eyisikwele yokuhluka. Ibonisa ukuthi ingakanani idatha ehlakazekile ngokwesilinganiso (isb. Ingakanani iphambuka ngokwesilinganiso kuyo) kepha, ngokungafani nomehluko, le paradiyamu ivezwa kuyunithi efanayo yokulinganisa ngokwesilinganiso (bona futhi I-Welkowits, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuZiphatha, 2009).

dysgraphia: [ukufunda] ukubhala kanzima, ngaphandle kokuthi lokhu kubangelwe ukuphazamiseka kwemithambo noma ukukhawulwa kwengqondo (Ajuriaguerra et al., L'écriture de l'enfant. 1 °. L'evolution del'écriture et ses difficultés, 1979 cit phakathi UDi Brina et al., BHK, 2010)

Dyspraxia: [i-neuropsychology] isiphazamiso esithinta ukuqaphela kokuziphatha kwezimoto ezifundile, ikakhulukazi lezo ezibonwe okwamanje sokulingiswa. Akuncike ekushodeni kohlelo lwezimoto, ukuntuleka kwengqondo noma ukusilela kokunaka. Kuhlukahluka nge-apraxia ngoba igama elithi dyspraxia libhekisa kokuphazamiseka okubonwa ngesikhathi sokuthuthuka (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

I-verbal dyspraxia: [Ulimi] Ukuphazamiseka okuphakathi ohlelweni nasekufezekiseni ukunyakaza okucacile okudingeka ukwenziwa kwemisindo, amagama, amagama kanye nenhlangano eyilandelanayo (I-Chilosis neCerri, i-Verbal dyspraxia, 2009 vd. futhi ISabbadini, iDyspraxia eminyakeni yokukhula: izindlela zokuhlola nokungenelela, ngo-2005)

Ukuphazamiseka kokuthuthuka kolimi lwesibili: [lulimi] noma yikuphi ukungafaneleki kwezilimi okwenzeka ngesikhathi sokuthuthuka, ngokulimazeka okuthe xaxa kolimi ngokwalo, ezifundweni ezinesici esisodwa noma eziningi ezilandelayo: ukuphambuka kwengqondo, ukuphazamiseka okuthuthukile jikelele womsebenzi wokuzwa, ukungaphatheki kahle kwezenhlalo-namasiko (Gilardone, Casetta, Luciani, Ingane enenkinga yokukhuluma. Ukuhlola ukwelashwa kwenkulumo nokwelashwa, Cortina, Turin 2008).

Ubukhosi beHemispheric: [i-neuropsychology] ukuxhaphaka kwenhliziyo eyodwa phezu kolawulo lomsebenzi wokuqonda noma we-motor; ngakho-ke yisisekelo se-hemispheric lateralization. Izibonelo zingolimi, imvamisa ezinamandla asobunxele be-hemispheric, nezinqubo ze-visuo-spatial, ngokubusa okulungile kwe-hemispherical (bheka futhi I-Habib, i-Hemispheric Dominance, i-2009, i-EMC - i-Neurology, 9, 1-13)

E

ecolalia: [ulimi] ukuphindwaphindwa kwamagama noma imishwana kulalelwe, ngaphandle kokuwaqonda ngempela. Kwenzeka ngokomzimba ezinganeni ikakhulukazi eminyakeni eyi-2-3 (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37) nangokwengqondo kubantu abadala, isibonelo eParkinson's.

Umphumela Wokulindela: [indlela yokucwaninga] ukuguqulwa kwemiphumela yocwaningo ngenxa yokulindela imiphumela enakekelwe ngumcwaningi noma izifundo zokuhlola ngokwazo. Iqale yachazwa yisazi sokusebenza kwengqondo uRobert Rosenthal esibizelwa yena kwezinye izimo Umphumela weRosenthal (noma Umphumela wePygmalion o isiprofetho esikuzisekisayo). Kuyisici esibaluleke kakhulu okufanele usicabangele ocwaningweni lapho umphumela womuntu uyisici esinqumayo futhi ngenxa yalesi sizathu lo mphumela uvame ukubizwa ngokuthi yinto ebucayi ezifundweni ngemiphumela yokwelashwa engasebenzisi iqembu elilawulayo elisebenzayo (isb. ekwelashweni noma kokunye kokuhlolwa) noma abangasebenzisi noma yiliphi iqembu lokulawula.

Umphumela wemodi: [ukufunda] bona Umbono Wokuqonda Wokufunda Ngemultimedia

Umphumela wePygmalion: vedi Umphumela wokulindelwa

Umphumela we-placebo: [psychology, medicine] ukuthuthuka okunikezwa ukwelashwa ngaphandle kwemiphumela ethile futhi kuxhunywe ethembeni elibekwe ekwelashweni uqobo. Lo mphumela, ngokufanayo ne-Umphumela wokulindelwa, kuvame ukuba yisithiyo ocwaningweni ngemiphumela yokwelashwa futhi kugcinwa kulawulwa ukusetshenziswa kwamaqembu ezifundo, abizwa ngokuthi awabo amaqembu okulawula, okungekho ukuphathwa okuhlinzekwayo noma okungelona iqiniso okuyiphathisiwe

Umphumela we-redundancy: [ukufunda] bona Umbono Wokuqonda Wokufunda Ngezindlela Eziningi

Umphumela weRosenthal: vedi Umphumela wokulindelwa

hemianopia: [i-neuropsychology] ukulahleka kombono engxenyeni yensimu ebonakalayo (noma i-quadrant eyodwa esimweni se quadrantanopia) izilonda ezilandelayo ze-opic chiasm, ipheshana le-optic, imisebe ye-optical noma i-cortex ebonakalayo (bheka futhi ILadàvas neBerti, iN Manual of Neuropsychology, 2014)

Ukuzikhulula kwendawo (bheka Ukunganaki)

isitatimende: [ulimi] kuye ngesimo esisetshenzisiwe, kungachazwa ngokuthi "ukukhishwa komsindo phakathi kwamakhefu amabili abonakalayo (agcwele noma angenalutho) ahlala okungenani amasekhondi amabili" (umbandela we-acoustic), "ibhulokhi yomqondo ehambisanayo, noma isiphakamiso esilula noma esiyinkimbinkimbi" ( umbandela we-semantic), “umusho oyinhloko olandelwa uchungechunge lwezinombolo zesekondari ezakheke kahle kusukela endaweni yokubuka yohlelo” (umbandela wohlelo lolimi). (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 69)

Iphutha lokuthayipha I: [psychometrics] ukwenqaba i-hypothesis eyize lapho kuyiqiniso.
Isibonelo: umcwaningi ucabanga ukuthi ukwelashwa okusha kokukhuluma kuthuthukisa izici zemisindo kangcono kunokwelashwa okujwayelekile; ngemuva kokufaka i-hypothesis ekuqinisekiseni kokuhlola, iyenqaba i-H0 (isb.ukuthi lezi zindlela zokwelapha ziyalingana) futhi yamukela i-H1 (okusho ukuthi ukwelashwa okusha kungcono) kepha empeleni izindlela ezimbili zokwelapha zinikeza imiphumela efanayo futhi umehluko otholakele uhlobene amaphutha ezindlela noma umphumela wethuba (bona futhi UWeltkovitz, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuziPhatha ngo-2009).

Iphutha lohlobo II: [ama-psychometrics] amukela i-null hypothesis lapho ingamanga.
Isibonelo: umcwaningi ucabanga ukuthi ukwelashwa okusha kokukhuluma kuthuthukisa izici zemisindo kangcono kunokwelashwa okujwayelekile; ngemuva kokuhlola i-hypothesis ngokuzama, wamukela i-H0 (okusho ukuthi izindlela zokwelapha ezimbili ziyalingana) bese enqaba i-H1 (okusho ukuthi ukwelashwa okusha kungcono) kepha empeleni izindlela ezimbili zokwelashwa zinikeza imiphumela ehlukile. Ukuntuleka kwemiphumela kuleli cala, ngakolunye uhlangothi, kuzoya ngamaphutha ezindlela, amaphuzu amancane angaguquki ngenxa yengozi, noma ngenxa yokuntuleka kwamandla esivivinyo sezibalo (bona futhi UWeltkovitz, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuziPhatha ngo-2009).

F

Amaqiniso we-Arithmetic: [mathematics] Yimiphumela yenqubo ye-arithmetic okungadingeki ukuthi ibalwe, kepha isivele inkumbulo. Isibonelo, amatafula wokuphindaphinda nezinombolo ezilula nokususa. (UPoli, uMolin, uLucangeli noCornoldi, IMemocalcolo, 2006: 8)

Amafilidi: [aphasia] ikhefu eligcwele elakhiwe yimisindo, amafonimi, amalunga noma izingcezu zamagama. Zitholakala ikakhulu ekuqaleni kokungamanga. "Namuhla usuku oluhle" (cf. isibonelo Marini, Neurolinguistics Manual, 2018: 143)

phonology. ungabahlukanisi (I-Nespor, phonology, 1993: 17)

Ibinzana lemibala: [ulimi] Indlela ehlanganisa umbala ohlukile entweni ngayinye yomusho (i-athikili, isihloko, isenzo…). Ingasetshenziselwa imisho ebhaliwe kanye naleyo eyenziwe ngama-pictograms (bona, isibonelo, I-AA VV, i-protocol yokwelapha yokukhuluma i-De Filippis, 2006).

Isilinganiso: [Ulimi] Inqubo yesistimu: esikhundleni somsindo osetshenziswayo noma oyindilinga nge-fricative. Isibonelo: "fasso" ye "iqiniso" (cf. Indatshana yethu ngePhonetics neFonology)

Functors: [izilimi] vd. Amagama ekilasi avulekile futhi avaliwe

Imisebenzi Yokuphatha: [I-neuropsychology] isethi eyinkimbinkimbi yemisebenzi yokuqonda yokuhlelela nokulawulwa kokuzithandela kokuziphatha, okubalulekile emisebenzini engeyona eyenzakalelayo edinga ukubhekwa okubalulekile kokunakwa (bheka futhi indatshana yethu ngemisebenzi yezokuphatha; UGrossi noTrojano, i-Neuropsychology yeForal Lobes, 2013).

G

Ukuhlwitha: [ulimi] Inqubo yesistimu: ukufakwa kongwaqa kanye nama-semicononant. Isibonelo: "foia" ye "leaf" (cf. Indatshana yethu ngePhonetics neFonology)

Isenzo se-Batonicuhlobo lwesenzo lapho izandla zisuka phezulu ziye phansi ukumaka izinhlamvu zamagama noma amagama omusho (endimeni yokuthinta komzimba bheka. Isisekelo sokwelashwa kwenkulumo eminyakeni yokukhula, iphe. I-234)

Ukulimala kobuchopho obuKhulu be-Serious: [i-neurology]: "Ukulimala kakhulu kobuchopho" (i-GCA) kusho ukulimala kobuchopho, ngenxa yokuhlukumezeka kwe-cranioencephalic noma ezinye izimbangela (i-cerebral anoxia, ukuphuma kwegazi, njll.), njengokudala isimo se-coma (GCS = / < 8 ngaphezulu kwamahora angama-24), kanye ne-sensorimotor, ukukhubazeka kwengqondo noma kokuziphatha, okubandakanya ukukhubazeka okukhulu (cf. Ingqungquthela Yokuvumelana: Umkhuba Omuhle Wemitholampilo Ngokuvuselelwa Kwezibhedlela kwabantu abanobuchopho obukhulu).

Iqembu lokulawula: [indlela yokucwaninga] ocwaningweni lapho ifunda khona umphumela wokuhlukahluka okuzimele emaqenjini ezifundo, ngokwesibonelo ukwelashwa, isampula livame ukuhlukaniswa okungenani ngamaqembu amancane okungenani amabili: iqembu lokuhlola, elithola ukwelashwa ngaphansi kophenyo (okuhlukile ezimele), neqembu lokulawula, okuyinto esikhundleni salo elingatholi noma yikuphi ukwelashwa noma okuthola elinye elehlukile (ngakho-ke alikho ngaphansi kwethonya lokwehluka okuzimele). Iqembu lokulawula yilona lapho imiphumela yempatho iqhathaniswa eqenjini lokuhlola ukunciphisa ithonya lokuthatheka okuthile okungenzeka (bona futhi U-Ercolani, Areni noMannetti, Ucwaningo Kwezengqondo, 1990).

I

Ukuphazanyiswa kwe-Cognitive-motor: [i-neuropsychology, multiple sclerosis] into ebonwe ngesikhathi kwenziwa umsebenzi wemoto ngasikhathi sinye (ngokwesibonelo ukuhamba) nomsebenzi wokuqonda (ngokwesibonelo ukusho wonke amagama aqala ngohlamvu oluthile); kulezi zimo kungenzeka ukubona ukunciphisa ukusebenza kwezimoto, ukuqonda noma kokubili. Ukuphazanyiswa kokuqonda kwengqondo kufundwa ikakhulukazi kumongo we-multiple sclerosis njengoba kwenzeka kaningi futhi ngokuphawuleka kakhulu kunabantu abaphilile (bona uRuggieri et al., 2018, Imephu yesibonakaliso se-Lesion yokuphazanyiswa kwengqondo-kwasemuva kokuqaqanjelwa kwe-sclerosis eminingi).

Ukuhlanganiswa kwe-Cross-modal: [I-neuropsychology] into ehlanganisa ukujoyina ulwazi oluvela eziteshini zezinzwa ezahlukahlukene kumqondo owodwa. Ngokuqondile, kungumbono ohilela ukuxhumana phakathi kwezindlela ezimbili noma ngaphezulu zezinzwa (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crossmodal).

Isikhathi sokuqiniseka: [i-psychometry] uhla lwamanani aphakathi kwemikhawulo emibili (ephansi nangaphezulu) lapho, ngamathuba athile (izinga lokuzethemba), ipharamitha ethile etholakalayo.
Isibonelo: uma ngemuva kokuphatha i-WAIS-IV i-IQ yabangu-102 ivela ngesikhawu sokuzithemba esingu-95% phakathi kuka-97 no-107, lokhu kusho ukuthi kumathuba angama-95% i-IQ "yeqiniso" yomuntu ohloliwe yinani eliphakathi kuka-97 no 107 (bona futhi UWeltkovitz, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuziPhatha ngo-2009).

Eminye imibono: [i-psychometry] nayo ikhonjisiwe nge-H1. emkhakheni wocwaningo yi-hypothesis eyenziwe ngumcwaningi futhi esihlose ukuyivivinya.
Uma, ngokwesibonelo, umcwaningi eqiniseka ukuthi enye indlela yokwelashwa inika imiphumela ehlukile ekwelashweni okujwayelekile, i-H1 izomela ubukhona balo mehluko phakathi kwezindlela ezimbili ezihlukile.
Kuchazwa futhi njengokuthi ngokuya ngokuthi i-null hypothesis ingamanga, iphinde icacise amanani wenani elinikeziwe lenzalo (bona futhi UWeltkovitz, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuziPhatha ngo-2009).

I-Null hypothesis: [i-psychometry] nayo ikhonjisiwe nge-H0, emkhakheni wezocwaningo ibhekisa emcabangweni okholelwa ukuthi uyiqiniso uma bungekho ubufakazi obuphikisayo obungabuphikisa.
Uma, ngokwesibonelo, kuhloselwe ukukhombisa ukuthi ukwelashwa okulodwa kusebenza kangcono kunokunye, i-H0 izomela umbono wokuthi akukho mehluko phakathi kwalezi zindlela zokwelapha ezimbili.
Iphinde ichazwe njengaleyo lapho inani lepharamitha elivezwe khona licacisiwe noma umehluko olindelekile (ovame ukuhambisana no-zero) phakathi kwamapharamitha wabantu abaningi (bheka futhi UWeltkovitz, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuziPhatha ngo-2009).

L

Isilinganiso sobude besitatimende (LME): [ulimi] Kwethulwa nguBrown ngo-1973, umqondo wobude besigwebo ukhombisa isilinganiso samagama noma imofimu ekhiqizwa yisikhulumi kusampula - imvamisa - yemisho eyi-100 (bheka Isigwebo). Ngenye yezinkomba zamakhono olimi ekukhiqizeni (bona, uBrown, Ulimi lokuqala, 1973).

M

I-The Mapping Theory: [aphasia] I-Hypothesis ngokusho ukuthi yiziphi iziguli ze-agrammatic, ngenkathi zigcina amandla okuhle okuhlanganisiwe, zinobunzima ekunikezeni izindima ezingaba yingxenye yomusho esakhiweni sokuphikisana sesenzo (cf. UFlosi, uCharlemagne noRossetto, Lukuvuselela umuntu one-aphasia, 2013: 57)

I-Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT): indlela ye- [aphasia] yokuvuselelwa kwe-aphasia esebenzisa izici zezincazelo zenkulumo (imiculo kanye nesigqi) ngokucula (bona uNorton et al., I-Melodic Intonation Therapy: Ukwabelana ngemininingwane yokuthi kwenziwa kanjani nokuthi kungani kungasiza, 2009)

Inkumbulo yokusebenza: [I-neuropsychology] Uhlelo oluvumela ukuthi ugcine okwesikhashana imininingwane ukuyiphatha noma ukuyisebenzisa (cf. UBaddeley noHitch, Memory yokusebenza, 1974). Bheka nendatshana yethu Yini ukusebenza inkumbulo.

Imemori eqondayo: [ikhono le-neuropsychology] lokukhumbula ukwenza isenzo ngemuva kokusihlela (bona isibonelo, URouleau et al. Ukulimazeka kwememori okungenzeka ku-sclerosis eminingi: isibuyekezo, i-2017). Bheka futhi i-athikili yethu ejulile Imemori ebonakalayo ku-sclerosis eminingi

Meta-ukuhlaziywa: [izibalo] izinhlobo zokuhlaziywa kwezibalo ezivumela ukufingqa imiphumela yezifundo ezahlukahlukene eziphathelene nesihloko esifanayo, ukuzama ukunciphisa imiphumela yemithombo yokuhluka kwemiphumela yezifundo ezizodwa, okwenza noma yikuphi ukwenzeka kuqubuke (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

Metacognition: igama elibhekisa ekuqwashiseni ngolwazi lomuntu uqobo, ngasikhathi sinye, izinqubo namasu okulawula (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

I-Metafonologia: Amandla wokuqhathanisa, izingxenye kanye nokubandlulula amagama avezwe ngomlomo ngesisekelo sokwakheka kwawo kophimbo (UMbhishobhi noSnowling, iDyslexia yokuThuthukisa nokukhubazeka kolimi okuqondile: okufanayo noma okuhlukile?, I-Psychol Bulletin 130 (6), 858-886, 2004)

ukumodeliswa (bheka Ukubumba)

Isimilo esidonsekelayo nesizuzisayo: i-Morphemes esusayo iguqula okushiwo yisisekelo (isb. Cas + in + a); morphemes inflectional kuphela siguqula izigaba amagama inflectional. Isibonelo, ubulili noma inombolo: Cas + a (cf. Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 13)

N

Ukunganaki: [neuropsychology] neuropsychological syndrome, imvamisa ibangelwa ukulimala kobuchopho, okubandakanya ukuntuleka kokuqwashisa nge-spatial. Umuntu owethula lezi zimpawu ukhombisa ubunzima bokuthi ahlole isikhala sendawo ephathelene nokulimala kobuchopho, ukuqwashisa ngokungemthetho kwesimo esikhona engxenyeni yendawo yomuntu siqu (imvamisa ngaphakathi), ukubukeka kobuntu noma okwangaphandle (bheka futhi i-athikili yethu Unganaki: uhlangothi olumnyama lomhlaba)

Ukunganaki kwendawo (bheka Ukunganaki)

I-Mirror neurons: [isigaba se-neuroscience] sezinzwa ezisebenza zombili lapho umuntu enza isenzo nalapho umuntu ofanayo abona isenzo esifanayo esenziwa esinye isihloko (https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroni_specchio)

O

holophrasis: [izilimi] ukusetshenziswa kwegama elilodwa esitatimendeni noma isicelo esizodinga umusho wonke. Kuyinto ejwayelekile yokukhula kolimi lokuqala enganeni. Isb: "cua" se "Ngifuna amanzi".

P

paraphasia: [aphasia] igama likhiqizwe ngokungalungile maqondana nethagethi. I-Paraphasia ingaba ifonotiki (isib: "libbio" ye "book") noma i-semantic ("notebook" ye "book"). (bona isibonelo Marini, Neurolinguistics Manual, 2018: 143)

Vula futhi uvale amagama weklasi: [izilimi] amagama eklasi elivulekile (noma okuqukethwe amagama) ngamabizo, izichasiso ezifanelekayo, izenzi ezenziwa ngezichazamazwi kanye lezandiso eziphela ngo -mente; amagama weklasi avaliwe (noma amagama okusetshenziswa o functors. Ngenkathi okuqukethwe kwamagama kudlulisa imiqondo yama-semantic, ama-funerals aveza ubudlelwano phakathi kwamagama.

Ukuhlaziywa Kwezakhi Zezwi: [aphasia] indlela ehlongozwe ngu Leonard, Rochon noLaird (2008) okuqukethe ukwethula isiguli ngesithombe maphakathi nephepha elinesicelo sokubuyisa igama elihlosiwe. Noma ngabe uphumelele, isiguli sitshelwa ukuthi silande igama elinemvumelwano, ifonimi yokuqala, elinye igama eliqala ngefonimi efanayo kanye nenombolo yamaqoqo. (bona iBoscarato neModena ku UFlosi, uCharlemagne noRossetto, Lukuvuselela umuntu one-aphasia, 2013: 47)

I-Neuronal plasticity: [neuropsychology] Amathuba okuba amaseli ezinzwa akwazi ukwenza eminye imisebenzi lapho kunesidingo. (UGollin, Ferrari, Peruzzi, Ukuvivinya umzimba ngengqondo, 2007: 15).

Amandla wokuhlola wesayensi: [i-psychometry] kusho amathuba okulahla i-null hypothesis, ngokusebenzisa ukuhlolwa kwezibalo, lapho lokhu empeleni kungamanga.
Isibonelo: uma isivivinyo esinikeziwe ngosayizi wesampuli esinikeziwe sinamandla wezibalo angama-80%, lokhu kusho ukuthi kunethuba elingu-80% lokuthola idatha elisenza senqabe i-hypothesis engekho, inqobo nje uma lokhu empeleni kungamanga (bona futhi UWeltkovitz, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuziPhatha ngo-2009).

Inqubo yesistimu: [Ulimi] Ukufakwa esikhundleni kolimi olunye kolunye, kanti ukulandelana kwesilabhasi kuhlala kungashintshiwe (bona, ngokwesibonelo, ISantoro, iPanero neCianetti, Ababili abancane 1, 2011).

Inqubo yokwakhiwa: [Ulimi] Ukuguqulwa kwesakhiwo segama le-syllabic, noshintsho ngobuningi bezinto nokulandelana kwama-conconants kanye noonkamisa abakha (bona ngokwesibonelo, ISantoro, iPanero neCianetti, Ababili abancane 1, 2011)

Isiprofetho esikuzisekisayo: vedi Umphumela wokulindelwa

Ukukhuthaza ukusebenza kahle kwe-Aphasics 'Comunicativeness (PACE) : [aphasia] indlela ebambekayo yokwelashwa kwe-i-aphasia lapho umelaphi wezinkulumo ekhomba wonke amasu akhona okuqinisekisa nokuqinisa ukwanela kokukhulumisana kwesiguli (bheka ukubuka konke iTrombetti ku UFlosi, uCharlemagne noRossetto, Lukuvuselela umuntu one-aphasia, 2013: 105 e I-Charlemagne, Izindlela Eziyimpumelelo Zokwelaphai-aphasia. Kusuka kumamodeli wezobuciko kuya kubuchwepheshe bePACE, 2002)

Imiphumela enesisindo: [Psychometry] Ukuguqulwa kokubala kwamaphuzu we-Z (okushintshiwe ngo-0 kanye nokuphambuka okujwayelekile 1) kube isikolo esinamaphuzu wokuphambuka okungu-10 kanye nokwejwayelekile 3. Uma kuqhathaniswa nenqaku le-Z kuhlukile ngakubukeka kuphela kepha izakhiwo zihlala zinjalo. Inzuzo yayo ukuthi ikwenza kungathandeki ukuthi kutholwe inani elinenani elingelona, ​​noma ngabe liphansi kunesilinganiso. Zisetshenziswa ekuhlolweni okuhlukahlukene njenge, ngokwesibonelo, i-NEPSY-II.

Isikolo se-Scalar: [Psychometry] Ukuguqulwa kokubala kwamaphuzu we-Z (okushintshiwe ngo-0 kanye nokuphambuka okujwayelekile 1) kube isikolo esinamaphuzu wokuphambuka okungu-10 kanye nokwejwayelekile 3. Uma kuqhathaniswa nenqaku le-Z kuhlukile ngakubukeka kuphela kepha izakhiwo zihlala zinjalo. Inzuzo yayo ukuthi ikwenza kungathandeki ukuthi kutholwe inani elinenani elingelona, ​​noma ngabe liphansi kunesilinganiso. Zisetshenziswa ekuhlolweni okuhlukahlukene njenge, ngokwesibonelo, i-WISC-IV.

Izinga elijwayelekile: [psychometry] isikolo esisetshenziswe kuzivivinyo eziningana (isibonelo ku I-BVN 5-11) enezakhiwo ezifana ne-IQ (bona futhi i-Intelliual Quotient).

T amaphuzu (Isikali): [Psychometry] Ukuguqulwa kokubala kwamaphuzu we-Z (okushintshiwe ngo-0 kanye nokuphambuka okujwayelekile 1) kube isikolo esinamaphuzu angama-50 nokuphambuka okujwayelekile 10. Uma kuqhathaniswa nenqaku le-Z, lihluke ngokubonakala kuphela kepha izakhiwo zihlala zinjalo. Usizo lwayo ukuthi lwenza ukuthi kube khona amamaki ngevelu engemihle ngendlela engathandeki, noma ngabe iphansi kunesilinganiso (bona futhi U-Ercolani, Areni noMannetti, Ucwaningo Kwezengqondo, 1990). Zisetshenziswa ekuhlolweni okuhlukahlukene njenge, ngokwesibonelo, the UMbhoshongo waseLondon.

Z amaphuzu (amaphuzu ajwayelekile): [izibalo, i-psychometry] amaphuzu abonisa ukuthi lingakanani inani liphambuka kumaphakathi olindelekile, eliqhathanisa nokuphambuka okujwayelekile. Izikolo zisho ukuphambuka okungu-0 nokujwayelekile 1 ukuze inani le-Z elingu-0 libonisa inani elihambisana kahle nokulindelwe, inani eliphakeme kune-0 libonisa inani eliphakeme kunesilinganiso bese kuthi amaphuzu aphansi kuno-0 akhombise inani eliphansi kunesilinganiso. Kutholakala ngokususa inani eliphansi kusuka kunani elibanjiwe futhi kuhlukaniswe konke ngokuphambuka okujwayelekile kwesilinganiso: (inani elibonakalayo - abezindaba) / ukuphambuka okujwayelekile (bheka futhi I-Welkowits, uCohen no-Ewen, Izibalo zeSayensi yokuZiphatha, 2009).

Q

Quadranopsia: (Bheka hemianopia)

R

Isivivinyo Esilawulwa Ngokungahleliwe (RCT): [Indlela yokucwaninga] ichazwa njengokwakhiwa kocwaningo lokuhlola “ngempela” ngoba ivumela ukulawulwa kokuhlola okuphelele kokuhlukahluka kwenzalo. Kuhlinzeka ukuthi izihloko lapho ucwaningo lwenziwa khona zabelwe ngokungahleliwe (zenziwa ngokungahleliwe) eqenjini lokuhlola noma eqenjini lokulawula ukuze wonke umuntu abe nethuba elifanayo lokugcina kokukodwa noma kokunye (amaqembu angenalo utho), ngaleyo ndlela kunciphisa amathuba okuba amaqembu ahlukile kakhulu komunye nomunye, okungaveza ukungabaza ngemiphumela engahle ibe khona yokuhlukahluka kwenzalo (bheka futhi U-Ercolani, Areni noMannetti, Ucwaningo Kwezengqondo, 1990).

Isilinganiso se-Percentile: [izibalo, i-psychometry] ukuma okujwayelekile kususelwa endaweni lapho izihloko zihlala khona ekuhanjisweni kwezikolo esikalini esukela ku-1 kuye ku-99. Zisetshenziswa ekuhlolweni okuningi, isibonelo Ibhethri lase-Italy le-ADHD (bheka futhi U-Ercolani, Areni noMannetti, Ucwaningo Kwezengqondo, 1990).

Ukwelapha Ngeqiniso Kweqiniso (i-ROT): [i-neuropsychology] Ukwelashwa inhloso yayo enkulu ukuthuthukisa ukujwayeza ngesikhathi, isikhala kanye nokuzihlonipha. Kune-ROT esemthethweni (uchungechunge lwemihlangano oluchazwe kahle) kanye neROT engahlelekile, esetshenziswa ngabasebenzi abangaqeqeshiwe usuku lonke. (UGollin, Ferrari, Peruzzi, Ukuvivinya umzimba ngengqondo, 2007: 13)

Unciphise i-Syntax Therapy (REST): [aphasia] Ukwelashwa kweziguli ze-aphasic agrammatic okuthi, esikhundleni sokugxila ekukhiqizeni imisho efanelekile, kusiza ukusetshenziswa kwezakhiwo ezenziwe lula njengalezo ezisetshenziswa ngokuhlangana ngezihloko ezijwayelekile (eziphakanyiswe Springer et al., 2000; vd. Ibhesi, Yazi uphinde ufundisei-aphasia, 2009: 35)

Ukuguqulwa kabusha [ukwelashwa kwenkulumo]: inqubo equkethe ukuphinda lokho okhulumisana nakho okusanda kukhiqiza, kushiya incazelo ingashintshiwe kepha inikeze imodeli efanele ngokufaka igama elilahlekile noma ukufaka igama igama elifanele noma elifanele (ukuthola eminye imininingwane bheka "Izindlela zokungenelela" ku Isisekelo sokwelashwa kwenkulumo eminyakeni yokukhula, iphe. I-235)

ukuqinisa: [i-psychology, yokuziphatha] isisusa esikhulisa noma esinciphisa amathuba okuvela kokuziphatha okuthile. Ukuqiniswa kuhlukaniswe izigaba ezine eziyinhloko: okuyisisekelo, okuyisisekelo (noma okulungiselelwe), ukuqinisela okuhle nokubi. Ukuqiniswa okuyinhloko yilokho okuhlobene nokusinda (ukudla, isiphuzo, ukulala, ubulili ...) ngenkathi ukuqiniswa kwesibili kungathathi hlangothi kokuqala okuthola inani lokuqinisa njengoba kuhlotshaniswa nezinye izisusa ezivele zinamandla okuqinisa. Ukugcizelela okuvumayo kuvame ukubonwa yindaba njengento emnandi futhi kukhulisa amathuba okuziphatha okuthile abahlobana nakho ngenkathi ukuqiniswa okungekuhle kukhulisa amathuba okuziphatha ngokuyeka ukuvuselela okungekuhle njengomphumela wokusebenzisa kwawo (bona futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

Ukulondolozwa kwengqondo: [I-neuropsychology, ukuguga] amasu wokuqonda, ahlukahluka ukusuka kumuntu kuya kumuntu, asetshenziswa ukuqhathanisa noma ukunxephezela izinqubo ze-pathological eziqhubekayo. Zincike ezimeni ezihlukile kumanethiwekhi we-neural nazo ezithonywe okuhlangenwe nakho kwempilo okufana nemfundo, imisebenzi nemisebenzi yokuzijabulisa (bona futhi UPassafiume noDi Giacomo, Isifo sokuwohloka kwe-Alzheimer's, 2006).

S

Izigaba Zocingo Ezingahleliwe (i-SFI): [Ulimi] (noma ama-syllabic noma ama-protomorphic fillers) ahlala endaweni engaguquki ekukhulumeni futhi mhlawumbe enze indima "yokumaka isikhundla" sezinto ezisebenzayo (uBottari et al., Ukucatshangelwa kwesakhiwo ekutholeni i-morphology yamahhala yase-Italy, 1993, kukhonjiwe ku: Ripamonti et al., ULepi: Ulimi oluhlaba umxhwele ebuntwaneni, 2017)

Ukuhlaziywa kwesici seSemantic: [aphasia] indlela ecabanga ukuthi ukuvuselelwa kolwazi lomqondo kwenzeka ngokufinyelela kumanethiwekhi we-semantic ngokusho kwe-hypothesis yokuthi ukwenziwa kwezimpawu ze-semantic yethagethi kufanele kusebenze ilitshe ngokwalo ngaphezu kwezinga lalo, ukwenza kube lula ukutholwa kwegama, ngomphumela wokwenza okuningiliziwe kwezinye izinhloso ezihlanganyela izici ezifanayo zesemantic (bona iBoscarato neModena ku UFlosi, uCharlemagne noRossetto, Lukuvuselela umuntu one-aphasia, 2013: 44).

Ukuzwela kokuhlolwa: [izibalo]: ikhono lohlolo lokukhomba izifundo ezinesici esithile (izinzuzo zangempela), ngokwesibonelo ubukhona be-dyslexia. Ngamanye amagama, kuyinani lezifundo okuthi, ngokuhlolwa, zilungele isici uma ziqhathaniswa nenani lezifundo ezinazo; Ukuthatha isibonelo se-dyslexia, ukuzwela kungukulingana kwezihloko ezine-dyslexic esivivinyweni esithile, uma kuqhathaniswa nengqikithi yalabo empeleni abane-dyslexic.
Uma sibiza u-S umuzwa wokuzwela, Inani le-dyslexics elikhonjwe ngokufanele ngovivinyo (ama-positives eqiniso) no-B inani le-dyslexics elingatholakali kuhlolo (ukungabi nalutho), khona-ke ukuzwela kungavezwa njengo-S = A / (A + B) .

Ukubumba: [Psychology, behaviour] Ukufakwa ngumhloli wempendulo esebenzayo eceliwe. Kuqukethe ekugcizeleleni ngokuhlelekile ukusebenza kwecala elisondela ekuthini impendulo izotholwa (ngokwesibonelo, ngokuletha inyamazane kancane kancane ukucindezela i-lever) (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

Ukushintsha okubonayo: [i-neuropsychology] Ukususwa kokugxila ekunakekelweni kusuka entweni eyodwa, noma kumcimbi, kuye kokunye, zombili eziqukethwe endaweni ezungeze isihloko (I-Marzocchi, iMolin, iPoli, Ukunakwa kanye ne-Metacognition, 2002: 12).

ICerebellar Cognitive-Affective Syndrome: [i-neuropsychology] i-constellation yokushoda kwengqondo nokuthintekayo okuvela ku-lesion ye-cerebellum. Ukushoda kungaba miningi futhi kukhathaze izizinda eziningi ezinjengememori yokusebenza, ulimi, imisebenzi ephezulu, ukufunda okungaqondile kanye nenqubo, ukucubungula kwendawo, ukulawulwa kokunakwa, ukulawulwa kokuziphatha nokuziphatha (Schmahmann, I-cerebellum nokukhononda, 2018).

I-disconnection syndrome: [i-neuropsychology] ukuguqulwa kokuqonda okuxhunyaniswe nesilonda sezinqwaba zezindaba ezimhlophe ezixhuma izindawo ezahlukahlukene zobuchopho (bona futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001).

Isifo seBalint Holmes: [neuropsychology] i-neuropsychological syndrome ebonakala ngo-simultanagnosia (ukusilela ekubonakalisweni kwesithombe somhlaba lapho kuqhathaniswa nezinto eziningi), i-oculomotor apraxia (isici ekuqondiseni ngamabomu ukuqondisisa kwephuzu) ne-opic ataxia (ukuntuleka kokunyakaza kokufezekiswa nge umlenze). Lesi sifo sivame ukuxhunyaniswa nezilonda ezimbili zeparieto-occipital (bheka futhi ILadàvas neBerti, iN Manual of Neuropsychology, 2014).

Uhlelo Lokunakekela Abaphethe: [imisebenzi ephezulu] UNorman noSharice benze imodeli enezinhlelo ezimbili ezisebenzayo. Esimweni sokuqala uhlelo olujwayelekile lokulawula lapho kumelwa khona izindlela ezahlukahlukene zokufunda eziguqulwe ngokweqile, ezikhethiwe ekuphenduleni okushukumisayo kwemvelo, kususelwa kuzinga lokusebenziseka ngokuzenzakalelayo; esimweni sesibili, lapho ukukhetha okuzenzakalelayo kunganele ukwenza kusebenze ukusebenza okuthile noma ukwenza kusebenze okunjalo kungasebenzi esimweni esithile, Uhlelo Lokuqapha Olwengamele evumela ukwenziwa kabusha kwamaphethini wokuziphatha ahlukahlukene ukukhetha eyodwa efanelekile ngokuya ngezimo (bheka futhi I-Mazzucchi, ukuvuselelwa kwe-Neuropsychological, 2012).

I-Somatoagnosia: [i-neuropsychology] ukulahleka kokuqwashisa iphethini yomzimba womuntu (bheka futhi I-Doron, Parot ne-Del Miglio, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2001)

Sound: [Ulimi] Inqubo yesistimu: esikhundleni somsindo oyisithulu ngomsindo ofanayo. Isibonelo: "bane" "yesinkwa" (cf. Indatshana yethu ngePhonetics neFonology).

Ukucaciswa kokuhlolwa [izibalo]: ikhono lohlolo lokukhomba izihloko ezingenaso isici esithile (iziphikiso zeqiniso), ngokwesibonelo ukungabi bikho komqondo. Ngamanye amagama, kuyinani lezifundo okuthi, ngokuhlolwa, kube nomphumela ongemuhle kusici uma kuqhathaniswa nenani lezifundo ezingenalo ngempela; Ukuthatha isibonelo sokuwohloka komqondo, ukucaciswa yinani lezifundo ezinempilo (ngaphandle komqondo) esivivinyweni esithile, uma kuqhathaniswa nengqikithi yalabo abaphilile empeleni.
Uma sibiza ukucaciswa kwe-S, inombolo yokuhlunga ehlonishwe ngokufanele ngovivinyo (okubi kwangempela) no-B inani lezinto ezibucayi ezingatholakali kuhlolo (positives ngamanga), khona-ke ukucaciswa kungavezwa njenge-S = A / (A + B) .

stereo: [Psychology] Ukuphindaphinda njalo kokuziphatha okukodwa kochungechunge olulodwa. Zingaba zezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene: i-motor, ekubhalweni okukhulunywa noma okukhulunywayo, emidlalweni, ekudwebeni, njll. (bheka futhi I-Galimberti, Isichazamazwi esisha se-Psychology, 2018).

Ukuyeka: [ulimi] ukufakelwa kwefonimi eqhubekayo naleyo engapheli (ex: dal per giallo) (cf. Indatshana yethu ngePhonetics neFonology).

subitizing: [i-neuropsychology] ikhono lokuhlukanisa ngokushesha futhi ngokunembile inani elincane lezinto (Kaufman et al., Ukubandlululwa kwenombolo ebonakalayo, 1949).

I-Sulcus glottidis: [izwi] lesion elidalwa ukungatholakali kolwelwesi lwamafinyila lwentambo yezwi oludala isikhwama esingena esikhaleni sikaReinke. Kukholakala ukuthi kubangelwa ukuvulwa okuzenzakalelayo kwe-epidermoid cyst eminyakeni yokuqala yokuphila (cf. I-Albera neRossi, i-Otolaryngology, 2018: 251).

T

Ithiyori Yokuqonda Yokufunda Ngemultimedia noma i-CTML: umbono [wokufunda] obona ukuthi kukhona iziteshi ezimbili zokufunda, eyodwa ebukwayo neyodwa yokuzwa, ngayinye enekhono elilinganiselwe (izinto ezi-3 noma ezi-4 ngasikhathi). Ulwazi oluthe xaxa olungacutshungulwa, ngakhoke lufundwe, uma luhlukaniswe iziteshi zombili (ezibukwayo nezokuzwakala) kunesiteshi esisodwa (isibonelo, umbhalo obhaliwe nezithombe); lokhu kubizwa ukusebenza kwemodi.
Uma, ngakolunye uhlangothi, sinikezela ngemininingwane efanayo ngendlela engelutho eziteshini eziningi (ezibukwayo nezizwakalayo) esikhundleni seyodwa (ngokwesibonelo, indawo yokubhala), lo mbono ubikezela ukuwohloka kokusebenza okuxhumene nokulayishwa kwememori esebenzayo; lokhu kubizwa umphumela wokuphindwaphindwa (bheka futhi UMayer noFiorella, Imigomo Yokwehlisa Ukusebenza Okungaphezulu Kokufunda Kwe-Multimedia: Ukubumbana, Ukusayina, Ukuphindaphindeka, Ukuqina Komhlaba, kanye Nezinkambiso Zesikhashana Sokuziphatha, 2014)

Umnotho wethokheni (Uhlelo lokuqinisa amathokheni): [Psychology, behaviour] inqubo yezengqondo equkethe ukudweba "inkontileka" phakathi kwesihloko nomzali noma uthisha wakhe, lapho kusungulwa imithetho khona; Intfo lefanekiswako (noma ithokheni) bese iniketwa ngekutiphatsa ngakunye lokudzingekako kwalemitsetfo, kuyilapho noma ngabe iluphi luphawu luzosuswa noma lunganikezwa uma kwenzeka sekwephulwa okufanayo. Lapho sifinyelela inani elinqunyelwe lamathokheni, lawa azoguqulwa abe yibhonasi okwakuvunyelwene ngayo ngaphambili (bheka futhi I-Vio ne-Spagnoletti, Izingane ezi-Inattentive and Hyperactive: Training Parent, 2013).

V

ubuqiniso: [psychometry] degree lapho ithuluzi elithile (isivivinyo) empeleni lilinganisa ukuguquguquka kwenzalo. Yakhiwa ngokuyinhloko ubuqiniso bokuqukethwe, ukuqinisekiswa kobuqiniso nokwakha ubuqiniso (bona futhi Izibalo zeSayensi yokuZiphatha, iWelkowitz, iCohen ne-Ewen, ka-2009).

Inani lokuqagela elingalungile: [izibalo] okungenzeka kwangemuva kokuhlolwa ukulinganisa ingxenye yezifundo ezikhonjwe kahle njenge non ukuba nesimilo (okungalungile kwangempela) maqondana nenani lalawo ahlukile kuleso sici (ubuthi beqiniso + ubuthi bokungamanga). Isibonelo, ukube besikhona phambi kokuhlolwa ukukhomba izifundo ze-aphasic, inani elingelona ukuqagela okungaba yisilinganiso esiphakathi kwezihloko ezinempilo ezikhonjwe ngokufanele yisivivinyo maqondana nengqikithi yezinempilo ezinempilo kanye ne-aphasic engemihle ekuhlolweni ihlukaniswe ngokungafanele njengenempilo).
Uma sibiza i-VPN inani elingelona ukuqagela okungafanele, Inani eliphelele lezifundo ezinempilo eziphawulwe kahle kanye ne-B ingqikithi yezifundo ze-aphasic ezihlukaniswe ngokungalungile njenge-aphasic lapho singakwazi ukuveza inani elibi lokuqagela ngendlela elandelayo: VPN = A / (A + B).

Inani elifanele lokubikezela: [izibalo] kungenzeka kwangaphambi kokuhlolwa kokulinganisa inani lezifundo ezichazwe kahle njengezinesimilo (izimilo zangempela) maqondana nenani lalawo afanelekile kuleso sici (izimfanelo zangempela + ezingemanga zamanga). Isibonelo, ukube besikhona phambi kokuhlolwa kokuhlonza izikhwama ze-aphasic, inani elifanele lokuqagela bekungaba isilinganiso phakathi kwama-aphasic akhonjwe kahle ukuhlolwa kuqhathaniswa nengqikithi ye-aphasics ne-non-aphasics efanelekile ekuhlolweni ngephutha njenge-aphasic).
Uma sibiza i-VPP inani elifanele lokuqagela, Isibalo sezihloko eziphawulwe kahle ze-aphasic kanye ne-B ingqikithi yezifundo ezinempilo zitholwe ngokungalungile njenge-aphasic singakhombisa inani elifanele lokuqagela ngokulandelayo: VPP = A / (A + B).

I-Cashishing Cows (indlela yokunciphisa iziphakamiso): [I-neuropsychology] inqubo yokubamba ngekhanda egxile ekunciphiseni okuqhubekayo kweziphakamiso eziphathelene nemininingwane okufanele iphindwe, ngemuva kwesigaba sokufunda esifanayo (bona futhi I-Glisky, Schacter ne-Tulving, Ukufunda nokugcinwa kwesilulumagama esihlobene nekhompiyutha ezigulini ezikhubazeke kwimemori: Indlela yokuphelelwa yithemba ngo-1986).

ukuhluka: [isibalo] isilinganiso sokuhluka kwezibalo zepharamitha ezizungeze izinzuzo zazo; kukala ukuthi lawa manani aphambuka kangaki emhlolweni we-arithmetic (bheka futhi I-Vio ne-Spagnoletti, Izingane ezi-Inattentive and Hyperactive: Training Parent, 2013).

vergeture: [izwi] ukudangala komugqa wamahhala wentambo yezwi ngokunamathela kwe-mucosa ku-ligal ye-vocal (cf. I-Albera neRossi, i-Otolaryngology, 2018: 251)

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