Ingqondo inomkhawulo ongaphakathi enanini lemininingwane elingakwazi ukuyisebenzisa ngesikhathi esithile. Ukuze usebenze empeleni, kufanele kube nendlela yokukhetha imininingwane ethile yokucutshungulwa okwalandela (UBanich, 2004).

Kumamodeli wethiyori ukunakwa uhlelo oluyinkimbinkimbi lwezinto ezisebenzisanayo ezivumela abantu ukuthi bahlunge imininingwane efanele futhi engabalulekile ngesisekelo sezinhloso, gcina futhi usebenzise amakhono omqondo, qapha futhi ushintshe izimpendulo kulokho okuvuselelayo (UStrauss et al., 2006).

Amamodeli ejwayele ukuhlukanisa phakathi kwezakhi ezifana ukuqwashisa / ukuvusa umdlandla, ukunaka okugxile kukho, ukunakwa okukhethiwe, ukunakwa okuhlukanisiwe, nokunakwa okuqhubekayo noma ukuqina. Ngaphezu kwalokho, akukho kuvunyelwana okufinyelelwe futhi eminye imigomo ibonakala inokudlulela okuthile noma iyafana (ngokwesibonelo, ukunaka okugxile nokukhetha). Ngaphezu kwalokho, izivivinyo zokuhlolwa kokunakwa zivame ukukala inqubo engaphezu kweyodwa yokubheka, ngaphezu kweqiniso lokuthi izinqubo zokunaka azikwazi ukuhlolwa zodwa (UStrauss et al., 2006).


Lezi zici kufanele zibhekwe ekuhumusheni ukusebenza kokuhlolwa futhi kuyadingeka futhi ukwazi izici zokuziphendukela kokusebenza kokunaka (kufaka phakathi ukuxhumana nezici zentuthuko ye- imisebenzi ephezulu), Kokubili kulabo abasebenza nezingane nakubantu abadala nasebekhulile (ukubhekisisa ngokufanele umkhuba wokuziphendukela kwemvelo wamakhono okunaka eminyakeni yokuguga).

Manje ake sizame ukwenza uhlu (olungapheleli) lwezivivinyo zokunaka, nencazelo yesihlobo ngokubaluleke kakhulu:

  • Umsebenzi Wokubhalwa Kwama-serial Auditory (I-PASAT). Lo ngumsebenzi wokungezelela we-serial osetshenziselwa ukuhlolwa kokubheka okuhlukene phakathi. yememori yokusebenza, nejubane lokucubungula imininingwane. Yenzelwe abantu abaphakathi kweminyaka eyi-14 kuya kwengama-76 futhi kuthatha imizuzu engama-20-30 ukuyilawula. Ngokombono wokuthembeka, isivivinyo sinokuvumelana kwangaphakathi okuphezulu kakhulu (UCrawford et al., 1998), ukumelana okuhle kakhulu kokuhlolwa kabusha (UMcCaffrey et al., 1995), Kepha ihlushwa umphumela wokufunda obalulekile. Kubukeka futhi kuzwela kakhulu ukulimala ekhanda futhi okunzima, kakhulu kunokwenza nezinye izinyathelo ezinjenge-TMT neDigit Span (UCicero et al., 1997; IPonsford neKinsella, ngo-1992). Ngaphezu kwalokho, njengoba kunikezwe ukuzwela kwayo ekushodeni kwengqondo okubangelwa i-multiple sclerosis, lokhu kuhlolwa kunconywe njengesinyathelo esiyinhloko ekuhlolweni kwemitholampilo okubandakanya lolu hlobo lweziguli. Kubukeka futhi kunokusebenza okuhle kwemvelo, ukukwazi ukubikezela ubunzima bansuku zonke obukhalazelwa yiziguli kanye nekhono lokugcina lokungena kabusha emsebenzini womsebenzi noma ngemuva kwesikhathi eside kusuka esehlakalweni esibuhlungu. Kodwa-ke, kunconywa ukuqaphela ekuhumusheni idatha ngoba imiphumela ingathinteka kakhulu ubunzima bokubala kwesiguliUStrauss et al., 2006).
  • Ukuhlolwa kwezinyangaLona ngumsebenzi ofanayo ne-PASAT kepha esikhundleni sokungezwa, ukuqhathanisa okuqhubekayo kufanele kwenziwe phakathi kwenyanga elaleliwe neyedlule, ukusho ukuthi yikuphi kulokhu okufika kuqala. Isetshenziselwa ukuhlola ukunakwa okuhlukene phakathi. yememori yokusebenza, nejubane lokucubungula imininingwane. Yenzelwe abantu abaphakathi kweminyaka eyi-14 kuya kwengama-76 futhi kuthatha imizuzu engama-20-30 ukuyilawula.
  • Ukuhlolwa kwamagamaLona ngumsebenzi ofanayo nowedlule kepha kudinga ukuthi kukhiqizwe igama eliqala ngohlamvu lwesithathu lwegama elingaphambi kwesikhathi njengoba lizwakala. Isetshenziselwa ukuhlola ukunakwa okuhlukanisiwe. yememori yokusebenza, nejubane lokucubungula imininingwane. Yenzelwe abantu abaphakathi kweminyaka eyi-14 kuya kwengama-76 futhi kuthatha imizuzu engama-20-30 ukuyilawula.
  • I-SymI-bol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Kudinga ubuqotho bokwengamela nenkumbulo yokusebenza (Barletta-Rodolfi, Ghidoni, & Gasparini, 2011) futhi iqukethe ukuhlangana kwenombolo kuphawu noma okuphambene nalokho. Ilinganiswa ngezihloko ezineminyaka engama-20 kuya kwengu-80 ubudala.
  • Ukuhlolwa Kwokunakwa Kwansuku Zonke (i-TEA). Ibhethri lokuhlola ukunakwa ezingxenyeni ezahlukahlukene eziphakamisa imisebenzi ebonakalayo yemvelo.
  • Ukuhlolwa kokusebenza kokunakwa (i-TAP)Ibhethri elenziwe ngekhompyutha elenziwe ngemisebenzi ehlukene eyi-12 esukela ezingxenyeni ezahlukahlukene zokunaka, kusuka ekuxwayiseni kuya ekuvuseleleni imemori yokusebenza.
  • Trail Ukwenza Ukuhlolwa (i-TMT). test yakhiwa izingxenye ezimbili: eyokuqala lapho isihloko kufanele sixhume khona izinombolo ezisakazeke eshidini ngokushesha okukhulu, kusukela kokuncane kakhulu kuye kokukhulu kunakho konke, okwesibili lapho inombolo kufanele ishintshane ngohlamvu, ingene ngokulandelana Ukulandelana kwe-alfabhethi. Kudinga ukunakekelwa okukhethiwe nokuguquguquka kwengqondo. Kuyashesha ukuphatha futhi kuhloswe ngabantu abaphakathi kweminyaka eyi-15 kuya kwengama-79, noma kuze kube yiminyaka engama-96 enguqulweni ye-ENB-2 (bona lapha ngokuningiliziwe).
  • Isivivinyo Sedijithali Yedijithi (SDT) e I-Digit Symbol Test (DST).
  • LI-ine-Trait-Test (LTT).
  • Matrices Attendedal. Ukuhlolwa kokunaka okukhethiwe okususelwa kumsebenzi wokukhansela. Abanye ababhali bakuthatha njengethuluzi elihle lokuhlola ukunakwa ezicini ezahlukahlukene: isivinini, ikhono lokuthola, ukuxhumana phakathi kwenkumbulo yokusebenza nezinqubo zokubuka okubonakalayo (IBarletta-Rodolfi, iGhidoni, neGasparini, 2011).
  • Ithage Ukukhanselwa Okuningiliziwe. Kuyinto umsebenzi ukunaka okukhethiwe okusheshayo, lapho isihloko kufanele sithole khona imigqa eshidini ngesikhathi esifushane kunazo zonke. Iveza kuphela ukunqanyulwa okungaphansi kokusebenza lapho kuthathwa njengokulingene.
  • Umsebenzi oMbili. Isivivinyo esidinga inkumbulo yokusebenza nokunakwa okuhlukanisiwe (IBarletta-Rodolfi, iGhidoni, neGasparini, 2011). Iqukethe ingxenye yesikhathi sokukhumbula inkumbulo yesikhashana, okuyingxenye lapho kufanele kulandelwe indlela futhi, ekugcineni, yingxenye lapho yomibili imisebenzi okumele yenziwe ngasikhathi sinye ukuhlola ukwehla kokusebenza. Kudinga cishe imizuzu eyi-10-15 yokuphathwa kohlolo futhi kulinganiswa ezifundweni ezisukela eminyakeni eyi-18 kuye kwengama-98 ubudala. Kuyinsimbi ezwelayo ukulimala kwe-lobe engaphambili (IBarletta-Rodolfi, iGhidoni, neGasparini, 2011).
  • Ukunakwa okubukwayo (I-NEPSY-II). Ukuhlolwa kokukhanselwa kwabantu abasukela eminyakeni emi-3 kuye kwengu-16 ubudala. Itholakala ngaphakathi kwe-NEPSY-II.
  • Ukunakwa kwe-Auditory (NEPSY-II). Ukuhlolwa kokuqapha okukhethiwe kokuhlola kweminyaka yobudala bokuthuthuka okukhona ku-NEPSY-II.
  • Isethi yokuphendula (NEPSY-II). Ukuhlolwa kokunakwa okukhethiwe kokuhlola kweminyaka yobudala bokukhula, ngokufakwa kwezakhi zokuvimbela kanye nokuguquguquka kwengqondo. itholakala ku-NEPSY-II.
  • Ukunakwa okubukwayo okukhethiwe (I-BVN 5-11; I-BVN 12-18). Kuyinto i-MFCT ilinganiselwe eminyakeni yokukhula.
  • Ukukhethwa kokuzwa okukhethiwe (I-BVN 5-11; I-BVN 12-18). Umsebenzi lapho isihloko kufanele sinake igama eliqondiwe elivela kaningi ngaphakathi kochungechunge lwamagama cishe wemizuzu emi-3 ubude.
  • Ukuhlolwa kokuhlolwa kokuhlola (BIA). Ukuhlolwa kwezingane kusuka eminyakeni emi-5 kuye kweli-11 ubudala, lapho kudingeka khona ukubala inani lemisindo eyenzeka entweni ngayinye enezinto eziguqukayo eziguqukayo.
  • Ukuhlolwa kwe-CP (BIA). Ukuhlolwa okubonakalayo kokukhetha okubonakalayo kususelwa ekukhanselweni kwesisulu sokuqondisa phakathi kweziphazamiso eziningi.

 

Njengoba kungaqondakala kalula kusuka encazelweni yezivivinyo, kusukela ekubukeni kokwenza ubuqiniso, imisebenzi yokunaka ingahlangana nezinye izizinda "ezihlukile" ze-neuropsychological ezifana imisebenzi ephezulu nememori. Isibonelo, ngokusebenza okwanele emsebenzini "wokunakwa ohlukanisiwe", umuntu kufanele akhombise ukuvimbela kanye nokuguquguquka, izinqubo zokuqonda ezivame ukuwela ebangeni le- imisebenzi ephezulu (UStrauss et al., 2006). Ngakho-ke kubalulekile ukuthi udokotela agcine lezi zici engqondweni lapho ehumusha ukusebenza.

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