Ukuhlolwa kwamakhono wezibalo mhlawumbe kunzima kakhulu kunalokho kokufunda nokubhala. UBiancardi, uMariani noPieretti bakugcizelela lokhu:

Ngokufunda nokubhala, izinhlelo zongqongqoshe kanye nezigaba ezifanayo zokufunda ikhodi ezenziwa yizingane ngokucacile zibonisa umngcele phakathi kwezinqubo zokufunda nokuzisebenzisa. Umjikelezo wokuqala wesikole samabanga aphansi usetshenziselwa ukufunda ukubhala nokubhala, ukufunda ukwenza kahle imithetho yesipelingi, ukuthola ukushibilika okwanele kokubhala. Kungemva kwesikhathi kuphela lapho izindlela ezahlukahlukene zokusebenzisa ulimi olubhaliwe, izitayela ezahlukahlukene, izinhloso nokusetshenziswa okusetshenziswa kwekhodi ebhaliwe kuvumela […]

I-Arithmetic ayivumeli ukwahlukaniswa okufanayo okucacile phakathi kwezinqubo zokufunda nokusetshenziswa kwazo. Ngaphezulu kokuphela komjikelezo wokuqala, izingane ziyaqhubeka nokufunda ama-algorithms amasha, njengokuphindaphindwa kwamadijithi amaningi, ukwahlukana, izimpande zesikwele. Ngisho nezinombolo abazisebenzisayo ziba ngokulandelana okuthe xaxa, okuphoqa ukuthi bazinikele kakhulu ekudluliseni imisebenzi […] Ngaphezu kwalokho, othisha abahlali benikela ngokuqukethwe okuhlukile ngasikhathi sinye futhi, ikakhulukazi nezingane ekugcineni komjikelezo wokuqala noma ekuqaleni umjikelezo wesibili wesikole samabanga aphansi, kuyadingeka ukubuza ukuthi bafundiswe ini ngamatafula wokuphindaphinda, ukubalwa okubhaliwe, amanani.


Yiziphi izindlela zokusebenzisa?

Manje yiziphi izindlela zokusebenzisa? E-Italy, kubhekwa ireferensi ebalulekile Idokhumenti yesivumelwano ka-AID-AIRIPA ka-2012 yokuxilongwa kwe-dyscalculia (2012). Nayi imingcele eyinhloko:

  • Ukuhlolwa kwamakhono ngamanye kumele kufake phakathi ukusetshenziswa kwezivivinyo ezihleliwe ezinezakhiwo ezifanele zekhemikhali
  • I-dyscalculia hypothesis ibhekwa kuphela lapho kukhona amaphuzu abucayi, atholakala ngaphansi kokuvalwa kwe-5 percentile (noma ama-2 ds), okungenani ama-50% ebhethri
  • Izinkinga kumele ziphikelele
  • Ukuxilongwa kweqiniso, ezimweni ezicacile ezingacacile, kungenziwa ngemuva kwezinyanga ezimbalwa zokugqugquzelwa okwanele kwezakhi ezonakalisiwe
  • Ukuxilongwa kungasekelwa ukuba khona okungenani kwez indices ezithile zokwelapha phakathi kwalezo ezihlotshaniswa ne-dyscalculia
  • Ukuphazamiseka kufanele kube nemiphumela ebucayi yokuguquguquka
  • Izindlela ezisetshenziselwa ukutholwa kwe-DSA kumele zihlonishwe

Okubaluleke kakhulu, futhi okuvame ukubukelwa phansi, iphuzu lesi-4, okungukuthi "ukuhlehliswa" kokuxilongwa. Kuyiqiniso, empeleni, ukuthi isikhathi sokuqiniswa okuhlosiwe singenza kube nokwenzeka ukuhlukanisa phakathi kwesifo sangempela nobunzima kwizibalo; empeleni, i positives ngamanga ukulandela ukuxilongwa okujahe kakhulu. Uma kuyiqiniso, empeleni, ukuthi ukukhubazeka ekufundeni kufanele kuthinte cishe u-3% wabantu besikole, ubunzima bezibalo, okungenani esigabeni sokuqala, kukhathaza abafundi abangama-20-30%. Indlela yokunganaki, ngakho-ke, izovula indlela yokuxilongwa ngokweqile okunemiphumela ebaluleke kakhulu kokuhlangenwe nakho kwengane esikoleni.

Ngaphezulu Kuyini dyscalculia

Ngokuqondene nama-subtypes, njengoba kushiwo kumadokhumenti weConsensus (2007, 2010), ngenxa yokuntuleka kokuvumelana kwamanye amazwe, kunconyelwa ukuba ungabeki ngokusobala ama-subtypes ngenhloso yokuhlukanisa, kodwa ukwenza incazelo ye iphrofayli yokusebenza. Embhalweni wesivumelwano osuvele ukhonjiwe, noma kunjalo, kukhonjwa imibhalo engaphansi eminingana ebhekisa kumaphrofayili amabili amakhulu: leyo enesipikili ekuqasheni kwezinombolo eziyisisekelo nalowo obonakale usilela ezinqubweni zokuphatha nasekubalweni okubaliwe. Izihlokwana yilezi:

  • Silela isakhi esingaphansi somqondo wenombolo noma ukumelwa kwenani
  • Deficit subtype yokwakhiwa kanye nokubuyiselwa kwamaqiniso ezinombolo kanye nawokubala
  • Ukusilela okungaphansi kwenqubo yokubala
  • Ukuphazamiseka okuxubekile

Manje ake siqhathanise izivivinyo eziyinhloko ezisetshenziselwa ukuxilongwa kwe-dyscalculia, singakhohlwa ukuthi ukuxilongwa kungenziwa kuphela ngaphakathi kwe- ukuhlolwa kwe-neuropsychological okubanzi okuchaza nezinye izici zesihloko (ukunakwa, inkumbulo, imisebenzi ephezulu nokunye okuningi) futhi, noma kunjalo, hhayi ngaphambi kokuphela konyaka wesithathu wesikole samabanga aphansi.

Ngakho-ke sizoqala kusuka ngonyaka wokuqala wesikole samabanga aphansi, kepha-ke sesikhombisa ubukhona be I-BIN 4-6 (Ibhethri Lezinombolo Ezihlakaniphile) engasetshenziswa kokubili ukuhlola imfundo yokuqala yezibalo yezingane ezinokukhula okujwayelekile, kanye nokuhlola amakhono abantwana abancane kunalokho kodwa abasalele emuva emuva ekutholeni imfundo eyisisekelo.

Ukuhlolwa okusetshenzisiwe

Hlola i-ac-mt 6-11 dyscalculia

Nome: AC-MT 6-11

I-Autore: UCesare Cornoldi, uDaniela Lucangeli, uMonica Bellina

ngonyaka: 2012

Ubudala: Unyaka we-IV wesikole samabanga aphansi

Ukuhlolwa kwe-AC-MT kuyabhekwa izivivinyo zezinga lokuqala, ozelwe ukwenza ukuhlolwa okuhlangene okusheshayo (okuyingxenye).

Ukuhlolwa, empeleni, kuhlukaniswe izingxenye eziningi. a ngokuhlanganyela (ubude besikhathi: cishe ama-20 '), okukodwa ngabanye kanye nesisombululo sezinkinga ze-arithmetic (ze-III, IV ne-V eziphambili). Ikakhulu, ingxenye ehlanganisiwe ifaka izivivinyo zamaphepha nepensela ezihlukaniswe: ukusebenza okubhaliwe, ukwahlulela izinombolo, ukuguqulwa kwaba izinombolo, uku-oda kusuka kokuncane kuya kokukhulu noku-oda kusuka kokukhulu kuya kokuncane; ukubheka kokuhlolwa ngakunye, esikhundleni salokho, ukubalwa engqondweni, ukubalwa okubhaliwe (ngaphandle kwalowo ophakathi), ukubalwa, ukubizwa ngezinombolo nokubuyiselwa kwamaqiniso ezinombolo.

Izikhombo ezi-4:

  • Izinto ezibhaliwe
  • Ulwazi lwezinombolo
  • ukunemba
  • Isikhathi sonke

Ekupheleni kungenzeka ukuthola uhla wokusebenza kwenkomba ngayinye noma, ngemininingwane ethe xaxa, amanani wokuhlolwa ngakunye.

Iphuzu elisekela izivivinyo ze-AC-MT 6-11 ngokuqinisekile yiisampula enkulu yokulawula (Izingane eziyi-5 000). Izivivinyo zokuxazulula izinkinga ziwuphawu lombuzo langempela maqondana nesikhathi sokuphatha. Ngokuya ngobuningi nekhwalithi, bathambekele ekuthatheni isikhathi esiningi futhi bakhathale ingane. Kodwa-ke, ziwusizo uma sibheka ukuthi ukuhlolwa kwamakhono wezibalo akuholeli ekutholakaleni kwe-dyscalculia, kepha ukuzama ukuqonda ukusebenza kwengane phambi kwemisebenzi enengqondo neyezibalo. Ngalesi sizathu, ngemuva kokuphenya amakhono ngamanye (mhlawumbe kungatholakali noma ikuphi ukusilela), ukuphathwa kwalolu hlobo lokuhlola kungagqamisa ubunzima hhayi ekubalweni okukodwa noma kuzinyathelo eziningi, kephaukuhlanganiswa kolwazi o ekwazeni ukuqonda umbhalo wenkinga nokukhipha imininingwane edingekayo ukuxazulula inkinga, ukuqondisa isifundo sokuxilonga, isibonelo, maqondana namakhono okunaka noma okuqonda.

Nome: AC-MT 11-14

I-Autore: UCesare Cornoldi, uChiara Cazzola

ngonyaka: 2004

Ubudala: U-I-III unyaka wesikole sebanga lokuqala

Yize, njengakuqala, ukuhlolwa kwezinga lokuqala, isikhathi eside i-AC-MT 11-14 isetshenzisiwe njengesivivinyo sangempela ukuthola i-dyscalculia ngoba bekuwukuphela kwesivivinyo esakwazi ukumboza okokugcina iminyaka emibili yesikole samabanga aphansi (inguqulo yokuqala ye-BDE, empeleni, yahlanganiswa ibanga lesithupha).

Lezi izivivinyo:

  • Ingxenye ehlanganisiwe: "yenza le misebenzi elandelayo" (imisebenzi eyi-8 yezibalo), izinkulumo zezibalo, "iyiphi enkulu kunazo zonke?", Ukuguqulwa kwezinombolo zibe amadijithi, ukuqedwa kochungechunge, ukuloba kube izinombolo zezinombolo ezethulwe amayunithi, amashumi, amakhulu kanye izinkulungwane, ukubalwa okunzima, amaqiniso, izinqubo kanye nemigomo
  • Ingxenye yomuntu ngamunye: ukubalwa emqondweni, ukubalwa okubhaliwe, ukubizelwa kwezinombolo, ukuthola kabusha amaqiniso ezinombolo
  • Izinkinga ze-arithmetic

Futhi kulokhu kunezindawo ezinkulu (ukubalwa kokubhaliwe okuhlangene, ukuqonda nokukhiqiza, ukucabanga ngezibalo, isivinini) namabhendi wokusebenza ama-4 (okulungile, okwanele, ukucela ukunakwa nokucela ukungenelela). Njengakumagazini wezingane, lezi zivivinyo nazo zisuselwa kusampula enkulu (cishe izingane ezingama-700 ekilasini ngalinye).

bde-2

Nome: BDE-2

I-Autore: U-Andrea Biancardi, uChristina Bachmann noClaudia Nicoletti

ngonyaka: 2016

Ubudala: Unyaka we-III wesikole samabanga aphansi - unyaka we-III wesikole samabanga aphansi aphansi

Sivele sikhulume nge-BDE-2, nokuthi imelela kanjani igxathu elibalulekile eliya phambili kusuka kuhlobo lwangaphambilini, kokukodwa isibuyekezo esizinikezele. Masisibuyisele masinyane isakhiwo saso. I-BDE-2 ihlukaniswe izingxenye ezintathu:

Indawo yenombolo

  • ukubala
  • Izinombolo zokufunda
  • Izinombolo zokubhala
  • Ukuphinda izinombolo (kuyakhetheka)

Indawo yokubalwa

  • Amatafula wezikhathi eziqondile
  • Ukuphindaphindeka engqondweni
  • Ukubalwa emqondweni
  • Izinto ezibhaliwe (ngokuzithandela)
  • Ukubalwa okusheshayo (kusuka ku-IV kuye phambili)

Indawo yomqondo wenombolo

  • ezintathu
  • Isibonakaliso se-algebraic
  • Izikhangiso (ngokuzithandela ku-III)
  • Umugqa wezinombolo (ngokuzithandela, ukusuka ku-IV kuya phambili)

Izinkinga ze-arithmetic (kusuka ku-IV kuya phambili).

Ngokungafani nokuhlolwa kwe-AC-MT, manje isampula ilincane (ngoba i-IV yangempela esinayo, eqinisweni, inezingane ezingama-721). Ngaphandle kwalokhu, kungenye yezivivinyo eziphelele kakhulu futhi sinethemba lokuthi ngokuzayo kungenzeka unikeze idatha ejwayelekile futhi yamakilasi esikole esiphakeme. Qaphela ukuthi ngokungafani nokuhlolwa kwe-AC-MT, ukuxazulula inkinga kufaka phakathi imibuzo eminingi yokuzikhethela.

abca

Nome: ABCA

I-Autore: UDaniela Lucangeli, Patrizio Emanuele Tressoldi, Carmela Fiore

ngonyaka: 2003

Ubudala: III-V unyaka wesikole samabanga aphansi

Hlola okuningi "okwedethi" kunamanye kepha kusetshenziswe kakhulu ekuhloleni. Eyakhelwe kumodeli kaMcCloskey, iCaramazza neBasili, kufaka phakathi izivivinyo ze:

  • Ukubalwa kubhaliwe nasemqondweni
  • Ukuqonda inani (ukuqashelwa kwezimpawu zamanani, ukuhleleka kwezinombolo, ukusetshenziswa kwezimpawu okuyikho, ukwahlulela kwenombolo yezinombolo ezethulwe ngokokubona, ukwahlulela kokuzwa kwamanani, inani lokulandela lamadijithi)
  • Ukukhiqizwa kwezinombolo ngomlomo nangokubhala (ukubala okubuyela emuva, ukubizelwa kwezinombolo, izikhathi ezi-7 zethebula eliya phambili, izikhathi ezi-4 zethebula emuva, ukuqhubeka nokuhlehla kwezingu-6, ukubalwa kwezinto ezinemifanekiso, ulayini, ukubuyisa izinhlanganisela zezinombolo).

Njengoba kubonakala kulokho okusanda kubhalwa, isivivinyo siqukethe izivivinyo eziningi ezingekho kwezinye. Umkhawulo omkhulu ukulinganiswa okuncishisiwe kusuka ebangeni lesi-2013 kuya kwelesi-XNUMX, esizame ukukulungisa ngohlobo lwango-XNUMX olunikezelwe ezikoleni eziphakeme.

Ekugcineni, kufanele kungakhohlwa ukuthi izivivinyo ezisheshayo eziphathelene nokubala nokubala zikhona ngaphakathi kwe- ibhethri BVN 5-11.

Ukuhlolwa kwe-Dyscalculia yezikole zamabanga aphansi nasesekondari

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