Kuyaziwa ukuthi izimpawu ze-ADHD, ezikhona ezinganeni lapho zitholakala khona isifo, zivame ukuncipha lapho umuntu esakhula[1] i-hyperacaction ikakhulukazi. Ngaso leso sikhathi phakathi kuka-30 no-80% wezifundo ezinalokhu kutholwa kusalokhu zihlangabezana nobunzima obuhlobene ne-ADHD kuyo yonke iminyaka yobusha kanye nokuba mdala[6]; Izinkinga ezimweni ezahlukahlukene zempilo yabantu abadala zizoncika engxenyeni yohlobo lwezimpawu zokuziphendukela kwemvelo[4].
Eminye imisebenzi yokusebenza kwengqondo ikhonjwe njengongenasidingo kaningi kulaba bantu, ngendlela eqinile yesikhathi sonke sempilo, ngokwesibonelo yaqhubeka nokuqashelwa, kuze kube sekubhekwe ngabacwaningi abathile njengesici esiyinhloko se-neuropsychological ku-ADHD[3].

Iqembu lezazi[2] kodwa-ke, ekholelwa ubufakazi besayensi ngalolo daba namanje akucaci, wenza ucwaningo olude ukucacisa izici eziningana:

  • Qondisisa uma kunjalo ukuthuthukiswa kwe-neuropsychological yabantu abane-ADHD ebusheni uhlukile kunabantu abangenayo i-ADHD (futhi uma igebe elikhona elineminyaka efanayo lishintsha ngokuhamba kwesikhathi)
  • Qondisisa uma kukhonaubudlelwane phakathi kwezimpawu ze-ADHD nokusebenza kwe-neuropsychological (ikakhulukazi ezicini ezihlobene imisebenzi ephezulu)
  • Phenya uma izici zabantu kanye ne-neuropsychological okhona lapho esakhula ashumayeza izimpawu ze-ADHD lapho esakhula futhi esemdala.

Ucwaningo

Amaqembu amabili abafana aqhathaniswa, elilodwa litholakale ne-ADHD (53) neqembu lesibili eline-standardotypic development (50). Womabili la maqembu abafana abhekana neyodwa ukuhlolwa kwe-neuropsychological eneminyaka engaba ngu-12 futhi ngokulandelayo iphinde yahlaziywa eminyakeni eyi-17.


Lezi zinhlaka ezahlukile ziye zacatshangelwa:

  • Izimpawu ze-ADHD kuhlolwe ngemibuzo ekhethekile egcwaliswe ngabazali (K-SADS-E)
  • Izinga lobuhlakani kulinganiswa ne-WISC-III

Imiphumela

Njengoba bekulindelekile, umphumela wokuqala waphawuleka ukuncishiswa okukhulu kwezimpawu ze-hyperactivity kunale yokunganakwa.

Uma kuqhathaniswa nezimpawu ze-neuropsychological, noma kunjalo, kuye kwaba nemiphumela eminingana ethokozisayo ekufanele ukuba iphawulwe. Okokuqala emsebenzini wesikole isexwayiso a ukukhuphuka komehluko ezikhathini zokuphendula kuqhathaniswa nezifundo ezinentuthuko ejwayelekile, isb. ngemuva kweminyaka eyisikhombisa ukusebenza kwabantu abane-ADHD worsens kuqhathaniswa nokujwayelekile.
Emsebenzini wesikole we ukunakekelwa okuqhubekayo womabili la maqembu athuthukile kepha bobabili ekuqaleni nokuhlolwa kwesibili kwe-neuropsychological (ngemuva kweminyaka engu-7) izifundo ezine-ADHD zikhombise okuphansi kunamandla ajwayelekile, nebanga elingashintshiwe; ngamanye amagama, womabili amaqembu akhombise ukuvela okufanayo kokusebenza, ngenkathi egcina umehluko ocacile phakathi kwabo.
Kwavela umkhuba ofanayo ku inkumbulo yesikhathi esifushane ye-visuo-spatial, ngokusebenza okuphansi kubafana be-ADHD kunalabo abanokuthuthuka okujwayelekile, ngenkathi bekhumbula imisebenzi yendawo yokubuka, ngemuva kweminyaka engu-7, bakhombise ukuncishiswa okukhulu kwamaphutha kodwa nokusebenzisa okuncane kwamasu.
Ukuthuthuka kwezivivinyo ze ukuguquguquka kwengqondo esikhundleni salokho kwahlola lokho okubonwa esivivinyweni sesixwayiso: ukusebenza okuqhathaniswa nokuhlola kokuqala nokusebenza okukubi kakhulu kwezifundo nge-AdHD ngemuva kweminyaka engu-7.
Ngendlela efanayo naleyo eqoshwe kwezinye izivivinyo ze-neuropsychological, nasezivivinyweni ze ukuhlela abafana abane-ADHD, iminyaka engu-7 bodwa, bakhombise ukwanda okufanayo kwezivivinyo zokuhlela ngenkathi bekhombisa ukusebenza okuphansi kunalabo abanokuthuthuka okujwayelekile.

Kodwa-ke, kwakungekho ukuhlangana phakathi kokuguqulwa kwezimpawu ze-neuropsychological kanye nezimpawu ze-ADHD ezibikwe ngabazali.

Ezinye izici ezikhona ekuhlolweni kokuqala zifakazele ukubikezela kwezimpawu ze-ADHD ezamenyezelwa ngabazali eminyakeni engama-7 kamuva, inkumbulo yokusebenza kwe-visuo-spatial, ukuguquguquka kwengqondo kanye nekhono lokuhlela. Ikakhulu, ukuguquguquka kwengqondo kanye nohlobo lokuhlala kwabazali ndawonye bakwazile ukuchaza 38% wezimpawu ze-ADHD eminyakeni engama-7 kamuva; Izimpawu ezingasebenzi, ukuguquguquka kwengqondo kanye nememori yokusebenza kwendawo ibalwe ngama-33% kokuhluka kwezimpawu ezingasebenzi ngemuva kweminyaka engu-7; Ekugcineni, ukuguquguquka kwengqondo, amandla okuhlela kanye nohlobo lomsebenzi wabazali kube yi-49% yokwehluka kwezimpawu ze-hyperactivity / impulsivity.

iziphetho

Imiphumela ebhalwe ngaphezulu ingafingqwa kanjena:

  • Zombili izimpawu zokunganaki kanye ne-hyperactivity / impulsivity, kanye nemisebenzi ye-neuropsychological (Attenzione e imisebenzi ephezulu) ku-ADHD bathuthuka ngokuhamba kwesikhathi kepha bahlala ngokwesilinganiso esiphansi kakhulu kunalokho okwenzeka ekuthuthukisweni okujwayelekile.
  • Ukushintshwa kwezimpawu ze-ADHD akuhlanganisi, okungukuthi, akuhambisani nezinguquko ezitholwe ngokuhlolwa kwe-neuropsychological.
  • Kubantu abane-ADHD, amakhono wokuhlela, inkumbulo yokusebenza kwendawo ebonakalayo kanye nokuguquguquka kwengqondo okucatshangwayo kubikezela ubukhali bezimpawu zabo zesikhathi esizayo.
  • Ukusebenza okungcono kokuqonda kokuguquguquka kwengqondo, kanye nomsebenzi ongcono wabazali (izinga lobuchwepheshe noma lobuchwepheshe - okusho ukuthi ngezinga eliphakeme lezenhlalo yomnotho) ukubikezela izimpawu ezinzima eminyakeni ezayo.

Konke lokhu kudinga ukuboniswa okubalulekile: iqiniso lokuthi eminyakeni edlule kube nokutholwa kwezimpawu ze-ADHD (ikakhulukazi i-hyperactivity / impulsivity) nokuthi imisebenzi yokuqonda ivame ukuthuthuka njengasezifundweni ezinentuthuko ejwayelekile (yize isasele ingezansi) ingaba into ebaluleke kakhulu, ikakhulukazi ekudluliseleni le nkinga kubazali. Ekuhlangenwe nakho kwethu, empeleni, kukhona inzalo nokukhathalela ngamakhono engane yesikhathi esizayo, futhi kungasiza kakhulu ukubatshela ukuthi yikuphi ukuziphendukela kwemvelo okungenzeka kwenzeke kwezinye zezimpawu zakhe; Ngaphezu kwalokho, ulwazi lwephrofayili yomfana ye-neuropsychological lungasiza futhi ukuchaza lezi zimpawu, ikakhulukazi uma sibheka amandla aqagelayo emisebenzi ethile yokuqonda, enjengememori yokusebenza, ukuhlela nokuguquguquka kwengqondo, okunikezwe ngokuqinisekile ukwenza ucwaningo i-neuropsychology ephelele engagcini lapho kuhlolwa "izindlela" ezimbalwa.

Bibliografia

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  2. I-Lin YJ, iGau SS-F (2018). Izinguquko zokuthuthuka kokusebenza kokusebenza kwe-neuropsychological kubantu abane-ADHD ngaphandle kwengane kusukela ebusheni kuya ebudaleni: isifundo esilandelwa iminyaka engu-7. I-Psychological Medicine 1-12.
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